ಫ್ರೆಂಚ್ ಗಯಾನ

ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ ಇಂದ
ಇಲ್ಲಿಗೆ ಹೋಗು: ಸಂಚರಣೆ, ಹುಡುಕು

ಫ್ರೆಂಚ್ ಗಯಾನವು ಫ್ರಾನ್ಸ್ ದೇಶದ ವಸಾಹತು ಆಗಿದೆ. ಇದು ಒಂದು ಪುಟ್ಟ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರವಾಗಿದ್ದು ಫ್ರೆಂಚ್ ಆಳ್ವಿಕೆಗೆ ಒಳಪಟ್ಟಿದೆ. ಇದು ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ಅಮೇರಿಕದ ಖಂಡದಲ್ಲಿದೆ. ಈ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರದ ಅಕ್ಕಪಕ್ಕದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಗಳಾವುವೆಂದರೆ ಸುರಿನಾಮ್ ಮತ್ತು ಬ್ರೆಜಿಲ್. ಫ್ರೆಂಚ್ ಗಯಾನ ದೇಶವು ಉತ್ತರಕ್ಕೆ ಪೆಸಿಪಿಕ್ ಮಹಾಸಗರವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದೆ. ತನ್ನ ವಸಾಹತನ್ನು ಬೆಳೆಸಲು ಬಹಳ ಹಿಂದೆ ಫ್ರೆಂಚ್ ಸರಕಾರಗಳು ಅಪರಾಧಿಗಳನ್ನು ಇಲ್ಲಿಗೆ ಗಡಿಪಾರು ಮಾಡುತ್ತಿತ್ತು. ಇದರಿಂದಾಗಿ ಫ್ರೆಂಚ್ ಜನರು ಇಲ್ಲಿನ ಜನರ ಜೊತೆ ಬೆರೆತು ಹೋದರು. ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಇಂದಿಗೂ ಫ್ರೆಂಚ್ ಆಡಳಿತ.ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಫ್ರಾನ್ಸ್ ಹಣವಾದ ಯೂರೋ (ಚಿಹ್ನೆ: €; ಕೋಡು: EUR) ಚಲಾವಣೆಯಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಇಲ್ಲಿನ ಜನರು ಫ್ರೆಂಚ್ ನಾಗರೀಕರಾಗಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಇಲ್ಲಿನ ಪ್ರಮುಖ ಪಟ್ಟಣಗಳಾವುವೆಂದರೆ ಕೈಯ್ಯನ್, ಕುರು,ಸಿನ್ನಮೇರಿ ಮುಂತಾದವು.ಕೈಯ್ಯನ್ ಪಟ್ಟಣವು ಕೈಯ್ಯನ್ ನದಿಯ ದಂಡೆಯ ಮೇಲಿದ್ದು ಇದು ರಾಜಧಾನಿಯಾಗಿದೆ. ಫ್ರೆಂಚ್ ಗಯಾನವು ಪ್ರತಿಯೊಂದು ಅವಶ್ಯಕತೆಗಳಿಗೆ ಫ್ರಾನ್ಸ್ ದೇಶವನ್ನು ಅವಲಂಬಿಸಿದೆ. ಇಲ್ಲಿನ ವಾಹನಗಳಿಗೆ ಎಡ ಬದಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಚಾಲನೆ ನಿಯಂತ್ರಣವಿದ್ದು ರಸ್ಥೆಯ ಬಲ ಬದಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಚಲಿಸಬೇಕು.

ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಹರಿಯುವ ಕೈಯ್ಯನ್ ಮತ್ತು ಕುರು ನದಿಗಳು ಅಮೇಜಾನ್ ನದಿಯ ಉಪನದಿಗಳಾಗಿವೆ. ಇವುಗಳಿಂದ ಅಪಾರ ಪ್ರಮಾಣದ ದಟ್ಟ ಅರಣ್ಯಗಳು ಅರಳಿವೆ. ಈ ನದಿಗಳಿಂದ ಉತ್ತಮವಾದ ಒಳನಾಡು ಸಾರಿಗೆ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆಯಾಗಿದೆ. ಇಲ್ಲಿನ ಜನರು ಫ್ರೆಂಚ್ ಭಾಷೆಯನ್ನು ಮಾತನಾಡುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಅನೇಕ ಹಿಂದಿ ಮಾತನಾಡುವ ಜನರೂ ನೆಲೆಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ.

ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಜಗತ್ ಪ್ರಸಿದ್ದ ಉಪಗ್ರಹ ಉಡ್ಡಯಣ ಕೇಂದ್ರವಿದೆ.ಇದರಿಂದ ಏರಿಯನ್,ಸೊಯುಜ್ ಮತ್ತು ವೆಗಾ ರಾಕೆಟ್ ಗಳನ್ನು ಉಡ್ಡಯಣ ಮಾಡಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.

ಬೌಗೊಳಿಕ ವಿವರಣೆ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Forested landscape of Remire-Montjoly.
Geographic map of French Guiana

ಫ್ರೆಂಚ್ ಗಯಾನ ವನ್ನು ಬೌಗೋಳಿಕವಾಗಿ ಎರಡು ಬಾಗವಾಗಿ ವಿಂಗಡಿಸಬಹುದು. ಉತ್ತರದ ಕರಾವಳಿ ಮತ್ತು ದಕ್ಷಿಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಬ್ರೆಜಿಲ್ ಗೆ ಹೊಂದಿಕೊಂಡಿರುವಂತ ಪ್ರದೇಶ. ಕರಾವಳಿ ಪ್ರದೇಶದಲ್ಲಿ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ಜನರು ವಾಸ ಮಾಡುತ್ತಾರೆ.ಇಲ್ಲಿನ ಬಹುತೇಕ ಹಳ್ಳಿಗಳು ದಟ್ಟ ಗೊಂಡಾರಣ್ಯದ ಮಧ್ಯೆ ಇವೆ. ಫ್ರೆಂಚ್ ಗಯಾನಕ್ಕೆ ಒಳಪಡುವ ಅನೇಕ ಪುಟ್ಟ ಪುಟ್ಟ ಧ್ವೀಪಗಳಿವೆ. ಇವುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಡೆವಿಲ್ಸ್ ದ್ವೀಪ ಮುಖ್ಯವಾದುದು. ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಕೆಲ ಬೆಟ್ಟ ಗುಡ್ಡಗಳೂ ಸಹ ಇವೆ.ಇಲ್ಲಿನ ಅತ್ಯಂತ ಎತ್ತರವಾದ ಶಿಖರ ಬೆಲ್ಲವೂ.ಇದು ೮೫೧ ಮೀ ಎತ್ತರವಿದೆ.

ದೇಶದ ಉತ್ತರ ಬಾಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದು ಬ್ಯಾರೇಜ್ ಇದ್ದು ಫ್ರೇಂಚ್ ಗಯಾನದ ವಿದ್ಯುತ್ ಉತ್ಪಾದನೆಗೆ ಸಹಾಯಕವಾಗಿದೆ.

ಇಲ್ಲಿನ ಅಮೆಜಾನ್ ಅರಣ್ಯ ಪ್ರದೇಶಗಳನ್ನು ೭ ಬಾಗಗಳಾಗಿ ವಿಂಗಡಿಸಿ ಸಂರಕ್ಷಿತ ಪ್ರದೇಶಗಳೆಂದು ಸರಕಾರ ಘೋಷಿಸಿದೆ.

ಆಡಳಿತ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

ಪ್ರೆಂಚ್ ಗಯಾನವನ್ನು ೨ ಬಾಗವಾಗಿ ವಿಂಗಡಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಇದನ್ನು ಈ ಕೆಳಕಂಡ ಚಿತ್ರದಲ್ಲಿ ತೋರಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ.

Guyane administrative.PNG
ಸೈಂಟ್ ಲಾರೆಂಟ್ ಪ್ರದೇಶ. ಕೈಯ್ಯನ್ ಪ್ರದೇಶ
  1. ಅವಾಲ-ಯಾಲಿಂಪೂ
  2. ಮನ
  3. ಸೈಂಟ್ ಲಾರೆಂಟ್ -ಮರೂನಿ
  4. ಅಪಟೋ
  5. ಗ್ರಾಂಡ್-ಸಾಂತಿ
  6. ಪಾಪೈಚ್ ಟಾನ್
  7. ಸಾವ್ಲ್
  8. ಮಾರಿಪಸೋಲ
  1. ಕ್ಯಾಂಪೊಯಿ
  2. ಸೈಂಟ್-ಜಾರ್ಜ್ಸ್
  3. ಔನಾರಿ
  4. ರೇಗಿನ
  5. ರೋರ
  6. ಸೈಂಟ್-ಎಲಿ
  7. ಇರಕೋಬೋ
  8. ಸಿನ್ನಮೆರಿ
  9. ಕುರು
  10. ಮಾಕೋರಿಯ
  11. ಮಾಂಟ್ ಸಿನೇರಿ-ಟೋನ್ನೆಗ್ರಾಂಡೆ
  12. ಮಾಟೊರಿ
  13. ಕೆಯ್ಯನ್
  14. ರೀಮೈರ್-ಮಾಂಟ್ ಜೋಲಿ


ಉಷ್ಣಾಂಶ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Climate data for ಪ್ರೆಂಚ್ ಗಯಾನ (ಕೈಯ್ಯನ್)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 27 28 28 28 28 28 29 30 31 30 30 28 29
Average low °C (°F) 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 22 22 22 22 23 23
Record low °C (°F) 19 20 19 18 20 21 20 20 21 20 20 20 19
(nil)
Precipitation cm (inches) 38 32 38 38 51 39 20 10 4 5 12 29 320
Source: BBC Weather [೧]

ವಾತಾವರಣ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Liana on a palm branch near a lake in Kourou
The Grey-winged Trumpeter, a species of bird found quite often in the region.

ಸಸ್ಯ ಸಂಪತ್ತಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಈ ಪ್ರದೇಶವನ್ನು ಅತ್ಯಂತ ಶ್ರೀಮಂತ ಎಂದು ಹೇಳಬಹುದು.

The Guianese forest is a primary forest with a high level of biodiversity (making it a Hotspot), protected by a new national park and six nature reserves. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the European Union (EU) recommend special efforts to protect these areas.[೨].

Following the Grenelle Environment Round Table of 2007 the proposed Grenelle Law II (in Article 49) has proposed (in 2009, and subject to change) the creation of a single entity responsible for Guyana to contribute to the implementation of political knowledge and conservation of natural Amazonian heritage (with expertise in the fields of wildlife, flora, natural habitats and semi-natural land, coastal and river, and on the functioning of ecosystems). It will help to implement environmental policies conducted by the State, along with local authorities and their groupings. Article 64 of the bill also provides a "departmental plan of mining orientation" for Guiana, promoting mining compatible with the requirements of environmental protection[೩].

The environment of the coastal strip, along the N1, has historically experienced the most changes, but development is occurring locally along the N2, and also in western Guiana due to gold mines.

The rainforest of Guiana has flourished despite having to contest with one of the poorest soils in the world: poor in nitrogen, in potassium and in organic matter. For this reason, and also because this region has always remained a shelter for all species during dry periods and terrestrial glaciation, this forest is home to unique ecosystems that are among the world's richest and most fragile: ancient primary tropical rainforests, mangroves, savannahs, inselbergs and many types of wetlands.

soil acidity is also behind the poor soils of Guyana. It requires farmers to lime fields, and led to the traditional mode of agriculture of slash and burn. The ashes are involved in the elevation of Potential Hydrogen (pH) in them, besides the contribution of minerals.

It may be noted that sites of Terra preta (anthropogenic soils) have been discovered on the territory, particularly near the border with Brazil. Research is actively pursued by actors from multiple disciplines to determine how to create these richer soils of the planet. The hypothesis was advanced that the very existence of the rainforest is due to these human interventions intelligent of the past.

5,500 ಸಸ್ಯ ಪ್ರಭೇದಗಳನ್ನು ಇಲ್ಲಿ ದಾಖಲಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಇದರಲ್ಲಿ ೧೦೦೦ ವಿವಿಧ ರೀತಿಯ ಮರಗಳಿದ್ದು, ೭೦೦ ರೀತಿಯ ಪಕ್ಷಿಗಳು, ೧೭೭ ರೀತಿಯ ಸಸ್ಥನಿಗಳು, ೫೦೦ ಬಗೆಯ ಮೀನುಗಳನ್ನು ಪತ್ತೆ ಹಚ್ಚಲಾಗಿದೆ. ೧೦೯ ಬಗೆಯ ಉಭಯವಾಸಿಗಳನ್ನೂ ಸಹ ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾಣಬಹುದು. The threats to the ecosystem are habitat fragmentation by the roads, which remains very limited compared to other forests of South America, impacts of immediate and deferred Dam Small-jump of EDF of gold mining, poor control of a hunting and Poaching facilitated by the creation of many tracks and the appearance of All-terrain vehicles. Logging remains moderate because of the lack of roads, on both the difficulty of climate and terrain. An ordinance of 28 July 2005 extended the Forest Code at French Guiana, but with important exceptions and modifications. In an approach that will be sustainable, concessions or free transfers may be granted by local authorities or other entities for use by persons traditionally deriving their livelihood from the forest, but the means no longer always used traditional means, and the Guianese ecosystem being vulnerable, the impacts of logging or hunting may be important.

The beaches of the natural reserve of the Amana, the joint Awala-Yalimapo in the west, is a marine turtle nesting site exceptional. This is one of the largest worldwide for the leatherback turtle.

ಅರ್ಥ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Ariane launched from the Guiana Space Centre near Kourou, on 10 August 1992.

In 2008 the GDP of French Guiana at market exchange rates was US$4.72 billion (€3.21 billion),[೪] ranking as the largest economy in the Guianas, and the 11th largest in South America.[೫]

French Guiana is heavily dependent on mainland France for subsidies, trade, and goods. The main industries are fishing (accounting for three-quarters of foreign exports), gold mining and timber. In addition, the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou accounts for 25% of the GDP and employs about 1,700 people.

There is very little manufacturing. Agriculture is largely undeveloped and is mainly confined to the area near the coast — sugar and bananas are two of the main cash crops grown. Tourism, especially eco-tourism, is growing. Unemployment is a major problem, running at about 20% to 30%.

In 2008 the GDP per capita of French Guiana at market exchange rates, not at PPP, was US$20,904 (€14,204),[೪] the highest in South America,[೫] but only 47% of Metropolitan France's average GDP per capita that year.[೪]

Regional GDP per capita, percentage of the EU27 average
 1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007 
French Guiana[೬] 64 53 60 60 56 52 53 50 49
France[೭] 115 115 116 116 112 110 111 109 108

ಸುತ್ತಲಿನ ಪ್ರದೇಶಗಳು[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

French Guiana's population of 229,000 (January 2009 est.),[೮] most of whom live along the coast, is very ethnically diverse. At the 1999 census, 54.4% of the inhabitants of French Guiana were born in French Guiana, 11.8% were born in Metropolitan France, 5.2% were born in the French Caribbean départements (Guadeloupe and Martinique), and 28.6% were born in foreign countries (primarily Brazil, Suriname, and Haiti).[೯]

Estimates of the percentages of French Guiana ethnic composition vary, a situation compounded by the large proportion of immigrants (about 20,000, nearly 10%).

Creoles (people of mixed African and French ancestry) are the largest ethnic group, though estimates vary as to the exact percentage, depending upon whether the large Haitian community is included as well. Generally the Creole population is judged to be about 60% to 70% of the total population if Haitians (comprising roughly one-third of Creoles) are included, and 30% to 50% without.

Roughly 14% of the population is of European ancestry. The vast majority of these are of French heritage, though there are also people of Dutch, British, Spanish and Portuguese ancestry .

The main Asian communities are the Chinese (3.2%, primarily from Hong Kong and Zhejiang province) and Hmong from Laos (1.5%). There are also smaller groups from various Caribbean islands, mainly Saint Lucia as well as Dominica. Other Asian groups include East Indians, Lebanese and Vietnamese.

The main groups living in the interior are the Maroons (formerly called "Bush Negroes") who are racially black African, and Amerindians. The Maroons, descendants of escaped African slaves, live primarily along the Maroni River. The main Maroon groups are the Saramaca, Aucan (both of whom also live in Suriname), and Boni (Aluku).

The main Amerindian groups (forming about 3%-4% of the population) are the Arawak, Carib, Emerillon, Galibi (now called the Kaliña), Palikour, Wayampi and Wayana. As of late 1990s there was evidence of an uncontacted group of Wayampi.

The dominant religion of French Guiana is Roman Catholicism; the Maroons and some Amerindian people maintain their own religions. The Hmong people are also mainly Catholic owing to the influence of missionaries who helped bring them to French Guiana.[೧೦]

Historical population
1790
estimate
1839
estimate
1857
estimate
1891
estimate
1946
census
1954
census
1961
census
1967
census
1974
census
1982
census
1990
census
1999
census
2007
census
2009
estimate
14,520 20,940 25,561 33,500 25,499 27,863 33,505 44,392 55,125 73,022 114,678 156,790 213,029 229,000
Official figures from past censuses and INSEE estimates.

ಜನಸಂಖ್ಯೆ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

The total fertility rate in French Guiana has remained high and is today considerably higher than in Metropolitan France, and also higher than the average of the four French overseas departments. It is largely responsible for the high population growth of French Guiana.

Total fertility rate
 1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007 
French Guiana 3.87 3.93 3.79 3.73 3.77 3.47 3.79 3.80 3.71
Four overseas departments 2.32 2.45 2.42 2.35 2.38 2.40 2.46 2.48 2.50
Metropolitan France 1.79 1.87 1.88 1.86 1.87 1.90 1.92 1.98 1.96
Source: INSEE[೧೧]

ಭಾಷೆ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

The official language of French Guiana is French, but a number of other local languages exist. Regional languages include French Guiana creole, six Amerindian languages (Arawak, Palikur, Kali'na, Wayana, Wayampi, Emerillon), four Maroon dialects (Saramaka, Paramaccan, Boni, Djuka), as well as Hmong Njua.[೧೨] Other languages spoken include Portuguese, Hakka, Haitian Creole, Spanish, Dutch and English.

ರಾಜಕೀಯ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

French Guiana, as part of France, is part of the European Union, the largest landmass for an area outside of Europe (since Greenland left the European Community in 1985), with one of the longest EU external boundaries. Along with the Spanish enclaves in Africa of Ceuta and Melilla, it is one of only three European Union territories outside Europe that is not an island. As an integral part of France, its head of state is the President of the French Republic, and its head of Government is the Prime Minister of France. The French Government and its agencies have responsibility for a wide range of issues that are reserved to the National Executive, such as defense and external relations.

The President of France appoints a Prefect (resident at the Prefecture building in Cayenne) as his representative to head the local government of French Guiana. There are two legislative bodies: the 19-member General Council and the 34-member Regional Council, both elected.

French Guiana sends two deputies to the French National Assembly, one representing the commune (municipality) of Cayenne and the commune of Macouria, and the other representing the rest of French Guiana. This latter constituency is the largest in the French Republic by land area. French Guiana also sends one senator to the French Senate.

French Guiana has traditionally been conservative[clarification needed], though the Socialist Party has been increasingly successful in recent years.

A chronic issue affecting French Guiana is the influx of illegal immigrants and clandestine gold prospectors from Brazil and Suriname. The border between the department and Suriname is formed by the Maroni River, which flows through rain forest and is difficult for the Gendarmerie and the French Foreign Legion to patrol. There have been several phases launched by the French government to combat illegal gold mining in French Guiana, beginning with Operation Anaconda beginning in 2003, followed by Operation Harpie in 2008, 2009 and Operation Harpie Reinforce in 2010. Colonel François Müller, the commander of French Guiana's gendarme believes these operations have been successful. However, after each operation ends, Brazilian miners, Garimpeiros, return.[೧೩] Soon after Operation Harpie Reinforce began, an altercation took place between French authorities and Brazilian miners. On March 12, 2010 a team of French soldiers and border police were attacked while returning from a successful operation, during which "the soldiers had arrested 15 miners, confiscated three boats, and seized 617 grams of gold... currently worth about $22,317." Garimpeiros returned to retrieve the lost loot and colleagues. "The soldiers fired warning shots and rubber "flash balls" but the miners managed to retake one of their boats and about 500 grams of gold. “The violent reaction by the garimpeiros can be explained by the exceptional take of 617 grams of gold, about 20 percent of the quantity seized in 2009 during the battle against illegal mining,” said Phillipe Duporge , the director of French Guiana’s border police, at a press conference the next day."[೧೪]

ಸಾರಿಗೆ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

French Guiana's main international airport is Cayenne-Rochambeau Airport, located in the commune of Matoury, a southern suburb of Cayenne. There are two flights a day to Paris (Orly Airport), served by Air France and Air Caraïbes. The flight time from Cayenne to Paris is 8 hours and 25 minutes, and from Paris to Cayenne it is 9 hours and 10 minutes. There are also flights to Fort-de-France, Pointe-à-Pitre, Port-au-Prince, Miami and Belém.

French Guiana's main seaport is the port of Dégrad des Cannes, located on the estuary of the Mahury River, in the commune of Remire-Montjoly, a south-eastern suburb of Cayenne. Almost all of French Guiana's imports and exports pass through the port of Dégrad des Cannes. Built in 1969, it replaced the old harbour of Cayenne which was congested and couldn't cope with modern traffic.

An asphalted road from Régina to Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock (a town by the Brazilian border) was opened in 2004, completing the road from Cayenne to the Brazilian border. It is now possible to drive on a fully paved road from Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni on the Surinamese border to Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock on the Brazilian border.

Following an international treaty between France and Brazil signed in July 2005, the Oyapock River Bridge over the Oyapock River (marking the border with Brazil) is currently being built and is due to open in 2010. This bridge will be the first land crossing ever opened between France and Brazil, and indeed between French Guiana and the rest of the world (there exists no other bridge crossing the Oyapock River, and no bridge crossing the Maroni River marking the border with Suriname - there is a ferry crossing to Albina, Suriname.). When the bridge is opened, it will be possible to drive uninterrupted from Cayenne to Macapá, the capital of the state of Amapá in Brazil.

ಪ್ರಮುಖ ಜನವಸತಿ ಪ್ರದೇಶಗಳು ೨೦೦೧ ರ ಜನಗಣತಿಯ ಪ್ರಕಾರ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  • ಕೈಯ್ಯನ್ 58369
  • ಸೈಂಟ್ ಲಾರೆಂಟ್ ಮರೂನಿ 34336
  • ಕುರು 25918
  • ಮಾಟುರಿ 25191
  • ರೇಮಿರಿ-ಮಾಂಟ್ ಜೋಲಿ18947
  • ಮನಾ 8322
  • ಮಕೋರಿಯ 8386
  • ಅಪಟೋ 6360
  • ಮರಿಪಾಸೋಲ 5584
  • ಸೈಂಟ್ -ಜಾರ್ಜೊಸ್3692
  • ಗ್ರಾಂಡ್-ಸಾಂತಿ3430
  • ಸಿನ್ನಮೇರಿ 3137

ಪ್ರೆಂಚ್ ಗಯಾನದ ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಟಿತ ವ್ಯಕ್ತಿಗಳು[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

ಸೇನಾ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Since July 2009, the commander of French Guiana's armed forces is General Jean-Pierre Hestin. The military there is currently 1900-strong, expected to increase enrollment in 2014-2015 [೧೫].

French Guiana's military is made up of:

See also[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Notes[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  1. "Average Conditions Cayenne, French Guiana".  Unknown parameter |ಪ್ರಕಾಶಕರು= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/city_guides/results.shtml?tt= ignored (help);
  2. Wed-2003.html Summary: Biodiversity and Conservation overseas (IUCN, 2008)
  3. Bill Grenelle II, with explanatory memorandum and impact assessment of project (PDF, 525 pages) (in course of review)
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named GDP
  5. ೫.೦ ೫.೧ IMF. "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2010". Retrieved 2010-08-12. 
  6. Eurostat. "Regional gross domestic product (PPS per inhabitant in % of the EU-27 average), by NUTS 2 regions". Retrieved 2010-08-12. 
  7. Eurostat. "GDP per capita in PPS". Retrieved 2010-08-12. 
  8. (French) INSEE, Government of France. "Population des régions au 1er janvier". Retrieved 2010-08-12. 
  9. (French) INSEE, Government of France. ""Migrations (caractéristiques démographiques selon le lieu de naissance)"". Retrieved 2007-05-04. 
  10. Danny Palmerlee (2007). South America. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74104-443-X. 
  11. (French) INSEE. "TABLEAU P3D - INDICATEURS GÉNÉRAUX DE LA POPULATION PAR DÉPARTEMENT ET RÉGION". Retrieved 2010-08-12. 
  12. "Ethnologue report for French Guiana". Ethnologue (16th ed.). 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2009. 
  13. http://untoldstories.pulitzercenter.org/2010/04/french-guiana-interview-with-colonel-francois-muller-commander-of-the-gendarmes.html#more
  14. http://untoldstories.pulitzercenter.org/2010/03/french-guiana-welcome-to-the-jungle.html#more
  15. ೧೫.೦ ೧೫.೧ Journal of guyana rfo TV August 18, 2009

ಗ್ರಂಥ ಋಣ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  • France's Overseas Frontier : Départements et territoires d'outre-mer Robert Aldrich and John Connell. Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-521-03036-6
  • Dry guillotine: Fifteen years among the living dead René Belbenoit, 1938, Reprint: Berkley (1975). ISBN 0-425-02950-6
  • Hell on Trial René Belbenoit, 1940, Translated from the Original French Manuscript by Preston Rambo. E. P Dutton & Co. Reprint by Blue Ribbon Books, New York, 194 p. Reprint: Bantam Books, 1971
  • Papillon Henri Charrière Reprints: Hart-Davis Macgibbon Ltd. 1970. ISBN 0-246-63987-3 (hbk); Perennial, 2001. ISBN 0-06-093479-4 (sbk)
  • Space in the Tropics: From Convicts to Rockets in French Guiana Peter Redfield. ISBN 0-520-21985-6

ಇನ್ನೂ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ವಿಷಯಗಳಿಗಾಗಿ ಕೊಂಡಿಗಳು[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Coordinates: 4°N 53°W / 4°N 53°W / 4; -53