ರೈಲು ಹಳಿಗಳ ಮೇಲೆ ಸಾಗುವ ಬೋಗಿ ತನ್ನ ದಾರಿಯ ಕೆಳಮಟ್ಟದಲ್ಲಿರುವಾಗ ಅತಿಹೆಚ್ಚು ಚಲನ ಶಕ್ತಿಯನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರುತ್ತದೆ. ಬೋಗಿಯು ಮೇಲೆ ಚಲಿಸಿದಂತೆ ಚಲನ ಶಕ್ತಿಯು ಪ್ರಚ್ಛನ್ನ ಶಕ್ತಿ ಪರಿವರ್ತನೆ ಗೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತಾ ಹೊಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಘ್ಹರ್ಷಣೆಯಿಂದ ಆಗುವ ನಷ್ಟವನ್ನು ಪರಿಗಣಿಸದೇ ಇದ್ದಲ್ಲಿ, ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆಯಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಒಟ್ಟು ಚಲನ ಶಕ್ತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರಚ್ಛನ್ನ ಶಕ್ತಿಯ ಮೊತ್ತ ಒಂದೇ ಅಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ
- ೧ ಚಲನ ಶಕ್ತಿ
- ೨ ಇತಿಹಾಸ
- ೩ ನ್ಯೂಟನ್ನ ಚಲನ ಶಕ್ತಿ
- ೪ ನಿಷ್ಪತ್ತಿ
- ೫ ಇದನ್ನೂ ನೋಡಿ
- ೬ ಮಾಪ್
- ೭ Institutes
- ೮ Education
- ೯ Culture and student life
- ೧೦ Recognition
- ೧೧ Criticism
- ೧೨ Notable alumni
- ೧೩ See also
- ೧೪ References
- ೧೫ Further reading
- ೧೬ External links
- ೧೭ ಉಲ್ಲೇಖಗಳು
ಭೌತಶಾಸ್ತ್ರದಲ್ಲಿ ಯವುದೇ ಒಂದು ವಸ್ತುವಿನ ಚಲನಶಕ್ತಿಯು ಆ ವಸ್ತುವಿನ ಚಲನೆ ಅಥವಾ ಗತಿಯಿಂದ ಪಡೆಯುವಂತ ಶಕ್ತಿಯಾಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ. ಚಲನಶಕ್ತಿಯು ಒಂದು ವಸ್ತುವನ್ನು ನಿಶ್ಚಲ ಸ್ತಿತಿಯಿಂದ ಗೊತ್ತಾದ ವೇಗಕ್ಕೆ ವೇಗೋತ್ಕರ್ಷಗೊಳಿಸಲು ಮಾಡಬೇಕಾಗುವ ಕೆಲಸ ಎಂದು ವ್ಯಾಖ್ಯಾನಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ. ವೇಗೋತ್ಕರ್ಷಗೊಂಡಾಗ ಪಡೆದಿರುವಂತಹ ಶಕ್ತಿಯನ್ನು, ಆ ವಸ್ತುವು ತನ್ನ ವೇಗ ಬದಾಲಯಿಸುವವರೆಗೂ ಉಳಸಿಕೊಂಡಿರುತ್ತದೆ. ಆ ವಸ್ತುವನ್ನು ಪಡೆದ ವೇಗದಿಂದ ನಿಶ್ಚಲ ಸ್ತಿತಿಗೆ ತರಲು, ಅದೇ ಮೊತ್ತದ ಕೆಲಸ ಬೇಕಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.
ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಯಂತ್ರಶಾಸ್ತ್ರದ ಪ್ರಕಾರ ಒಂದು ತಿರುಗದೇ ಇರುವಂತಹ, v ವೇಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಚಲಿಸುತ್ತಿರುವ, m ದ್ರವ್ಯರಾಶಿ ಇರುವ ವಸ್ತುವಿನ ಚಲನ ಶಕ್ತಿಯು ½ mv೨ ಆಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ.
ಚಲನ ಶಕ್ತಿಯ ಮಾನಕ ಜೌಲ್ (joule) ಆಗಿದೆ.
ಚಲನ ಶಕ್ತಿಯ ಮೂಲತತ್ವ E ∝ mv² ಮೊದಲು ಪರಿಚಯಿಸದವರು ಗೊತ್ತ್ಫ಼್ರಿಎದ್ ಲೆಇಬ್ನಿಜ಼್ (Gottfried Leibniz) ಮತ್ತು ಜೊಹ್ನ್ ಬೆರ್ನೊಉಲ್ಲಿ (Johann Bernoulli). ನೆದೆರಲಾಂಡಿನ Willem 's Gravesande ಅವರು ಚಲನ ಶಕ್ತಿಯ ಈ ಸ್ಮೀಕರಣ ವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಾಯೂಗಿಕವಾಗಿ ತೂರಿಸಿಕೊಟ್ಟರು.
Willem 's Gravesande ರವರು, ಒಂದು ಗೊತ್ತದ ತೂಕದ ಇಟ್ಟಿಗೆಯನ್ನು ವಿವಿಧ ಎತ್ತರಗಳಿಂದ ವಿವಿಧ ವೇಗಗಳಿಂದ ಜೇಡಿಮಣ್ಣಿನ ಮೇಲೆ ಬೀಳಿಸಿ, ಇಟ್ಟಿಗೆ ಮಾಢುವ ನುಗ್ಗುವ ಆಳ ಅದರ ಚಲಾನ ವೇಗಕ್ಕೆ ಅನುಪಾತವಾಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ ಎಂದು ತೀರ್ಮಾನಿಸಿ ತೊರಿಸದರು.
ನ್ಯೂಟನ್ನ ಚಲನ ಶಕ್ತಿ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]
ಇದು ಒಂದು ಪ್ರಯೋಗ ಪುಟ.
ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಯಂತ್ರಶಾಸ್ತ್ರದಲ್ಲಿ, ಒಂದು ಬಿಂದುವಸ್ತುವಿನ ಅಥವಾ ಬಿಂದುವಿನಂತಹ ವಸ್ತುವಿನ (ಒಂದು ವಸ್ತುವಿನ ದ್ರವ್ಯರಾಶಿಯು ಒಂದು ಚಿಕ್ಕ ಬಿಂದುವಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಇರುವಷ್ಟು ಸಣ್ಣದಾಗಿದ್ದರೆ, ಬಿಂದು ವಸ್ತುವೆಂದು ಊಹಿಸಬಹುದು) ಚಲನ ಶಕ್ತಿಯು , ಅದರ ದ್ರವ್ಯರಾಶಿ ಮತ್ತು ಜವದಮೇಲೆ ಅವಲಂಬಿತವಾಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ. ಚಲನ ಶಕ್ತಿಯು ಅದರ ಅರ್ದದಷ್ಟು ದ್ರವ್ಯರಾಶಿ ಮತ್ತು ವೇಗದ ಗುಣಲಬ್ಢವಾಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ.
ದ್ರವ್ಯ್ರಾಶಿ m ಮತ್ತು ವೇಗ v ಆಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ. ದ್ರವ್ಯರಾಶಿಯನ್ನು ಕಿಲೋ ಗ್ರಾಮ್, ಮತ್ತು ದೂರವನ್ನು ಮೀಟರ್, ಸಮಯವನ್ನು ಸೆಕೆಂಡ್ ಮಾನಕದಲ್ಲಿ ಪರಿಗಣಿಸಿದರೆ, ಚಲನ ಶಕ್ತಿಯ ಮಾನಕವು ಜೌಲ್ ಅಗಲಿದೆ.
ಉದಾಹಾರಣೆಗೆ,೮೦kg ತೂಕದ ವಸ್ತು ೧೮m/s ಚಲಿಸಿದರೆ, ಅದರ ಚಲನಶಕ್ತಿಯು, ಈ ಕೆಳಗಿನಂತೆ, ೧೨೯೬೦J (ಜೌಲ್ಸ್) ಆಗುತ್ತದೆ.
ಒಂದು ವಸುವಿನ ಚಲನ ಶಕ್ತಿ ಅದರ ಚಲನ ಪರಿಮಾಣ(ರಭಸ)ದ ಸಂಬಂಧ ಸೂಚಿಸುವ ಸಮೀಕರಣವು ಈ ಕೆಳಕಂಡಂತಿದೆ:
- ಚಲನ ಪರಿಮಾಣ ಅಥಾವ ರಭಸ ಮತ್ತು
- ವಸ್ತುವಿನ ದ್ರವ್ಯ್ರರಾಶಿ ಆಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ.
ಒಂದು ಅತಿ ಚಿಕ್ಕ ಸಮಯ(dt) ಯಲ್ಲಿ ವೇಗೊತ್ಕರ್ಷಕ್ಕೆ ಒಳಪಟ್ಟ್ಟ ಕಣ ಮಾಡುವ ಕೆಲಸವನ್ನು ಬಲ ಮತ್ತು ಸ್ಥಾನಪಲ್ಲಟದಿಂದ ಗುಣಾಕಾರದಿಂದ ಪಡೆಯಬಹುದು.
ಇಲ್ಲಿ p ಯನ್ನು m.v ಎಂದು ಪರಿಗಣಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ.
ಗುಣಾಕಾರದ ನಿಯಮವನ್ನು ಅನ್ವಯಿಸು, ಸಂಕ್ಷಿಪ್ತವಾಗಿಸಿ:
ದ್ರವ್ಯರಾಶಿಯ ಬದಾಲವಣೆ ಅಗಿಲ್ಲವೆಂದು ಪರಿಗಣಿಸಿ(dm=0), ಕೆಳಗಿನಂತೆ ಬರೆಯಬಹುದು:
ಇದನ್ನು ಕಲನ ಗಣಿತದಲ್ಲಿ, ಸಂಯೋಜಿಸಿ, ಚಲನ ಶಕ್ತಿಯ ಸಮೀಕರಣ ಪಡೆಯಬಹುದು. ಸಮಯ ೦ ಯಿಂದ t ಯವರೆಗೆ ಸಂಯೋಜಿಸಿ, ವಸ್ತು v ವೇಗವನ್ನು ಪಡೆದಾಗ:
ಈ ಸಮೀಕರಣವು, ಚಲನ ಶಕ್ತಿಯು, ವೇಗ ಮತ್ತು ರಭಸದ ಚುಕ್ಕೆ ಗುಣಲಬ್ಡದ ಸಂಯೋಜನೆಯಿಂದ ಪಡೆಯಬಹುದೆಂದು ಈ ಮೇಲಿನ ಸಮೀಕರಣ ತೋರಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ವಸ್ತುವು ೦ ಚಲನಶಕ್ತಿಯೊಂದಿಗೆ ನಿಶ್ಚಲ ಸ್ಥಿತಿಯಲ್ಲಿರುತ್ತದೆ ಎಂದು ಊಹಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ.
|“||Here in the place of that Hijli Detention Camp stands the fine monument of India, representing India's urges, India's future in the making. This picture seems to me symbolical of the changes that are coming to India.||”|
On the recommendations of the Sarkar Committee, four campuses were established at Bombay (1958), Madras (1959), Kanpur (1959), and Delhi (1961). The location of these campuses was chosen to be scattered throughout India to prevent regional imbalance. The Indian Institutes of Technology Act was amended to reflect the addition of new IITs. Student agitations in the state of Assam made Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi promise the creation of a new IIT in Assam. This led to a sixth campus at Guwahati under the Assam Accord in 1994. The University of Roorkee, India's oldest engineering college, was conferred IIT status in 2001.
Over the past few years, there have been a number of developments toward establishing new IITs. On 1 October 2003, Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee announced plans to create more IITs "by upgrading existing academic institutions that have the necessary promise and potential". Subsequent developments led to the formation of the S K Joshi Committee in November 2003 to guide the selection of the five institutions which would become the five new IITs. Based on the initial recommendations of the Sarkar Committee, it was decided that further IITs should be spread throughout the country. When the government expressed its willingness to correct this regional imbalance, 16 states demanded IITs. Since the S K Joshi Committee prescribed strict guidelines for institutions aspiring to be IITs, only seven colleges were selected for final consideration.Cite error: Closing
</ref> missing for
<ref> tag and having residual powers. Directly under the President is the IIT Council, which comprises the minister-in-charge of technical education in the Union Government, the Chairmen of all IITs, the Directors of all IITs, the Chairman of the University Grants Commission, the Director General of CSIR, the Chairman of IISc, the Director of IISc, three members of Parliament, the Joint Council Secretary of Ministry of Human Resource and Development, and three appointees each of the Union Government, AICTE, and the Visitor.
Under the IIT Council is the Board of Governors of each IIT. Under the Board of Governors is the Director, who is the chief academic and executive officer of the IIT. Under the Director, in the organisational structure, comes the Deputy Director. Under the Director and the Deputy Director, come the Deans, Heads of Departments, Registrar, President of the Students' Council, and Chairman of the Hall Management Committee. The Registrar is the chief administrative officer of the IIT and overviews the day-to-day operations. Below the Heads of Department (HOD) are the faculty members (Professors, Associate Professors, and Assistant Professors). The Wardens come under the Chairman of the Hall Management Committee.
The IITs receive comparatively higher grants than other engineering colleges in India. While the total government funding to most other engineering colleges is around Rs. 100–200 million (USD 2–4 million) per year, the amount varies between Rs. 900–1,300 million (USD 18–26 million) per year for each IIT. Other sources of funds include student fees and research funding from industry and contributions from the alumni. The faculty-to-student ratio in the IITs is between 1:6 and 1:8. The Standing Committee of IIT Council (SCIC) prescribes the lower limit for faculty-to-student ratio as 1:9, applied department wise. The IITs subsidise undergraduate student fees by approximately 80% and provide scholarships to all Master of Technology students and Research Scholars in order to encourage students for higher studies, per the recommendations of the Thacker Committee (1959–1961). The cost borne by undergraduate students is around Rs. ೧,೮೦,೦೦೦ per annum. After students from SC and ST categories, physically challenged students will now be the beneficiaries of fee waiver at the IITs in India.
The various IITs function autonomously, and their special status as Institutes of National Importance facilitates the smooth running of IITs, virtually free from both regional as well as student politics. Such autonomy means that IITs can create their own curricula and adapt rapidly to the changes in educational requirements, free from bureaucratic hurdles. The government has no direct control over internal policy decisions of IITs (like faculty recruitment and curricula) but has representation on the IIT Council. The medium of instruction in all IITs is English. The classes are usually held between 7:30 am and 5:30 pm, though there are some variations within each IIT. All the IITs have public libraries for the use of their students. In addition to a collection of prescribed books, the libraries have sections for fiction and other literary genres[ಸೂಕ್ತ ಉಲ್ಲೇಖನ ಬೇಕು]. The electronic libraries allow students to access on-line journals and periodicals. The IITs and IISc have taken an initiative along with Ministry of Human Resource Development to provide free online videos of actual lectures of different disciplines under National Program on Technology Enhanced Learning. This initiative is undertaken to make quality education accessible to all students. The lectures can be accessed at http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/
The academic policies of each IIT are decided by its Senate. This comprises all professors of the IIT and student representatives. Unlike many western universities that have an elected senate, the IITs have an academic senate. It controls and approves the curriculum, courses, examinations and results, and appoints committees to look into specific academic matters. The teaching, training and research activities of the institute are periodically reviewed by the senate to maintain educational standards. The Director of an IIT is the ex-officio Chairman of the Senate.
All the IITs follow the credits system of performance evaluation, with proportional weighting of courses based on their importance. The total marks (usually out of 100) form the basis of grades, with a grade value (out of 10) assigned to a range of marks. Sometimes, relative grading is done considering the overall performance of the whole class. For each semester, the students are graded on a scale of 0 to 10 based on their performance, by taking a weighted average of the grade points from all the courses, with their respective credit points. Each semester evaluation is done independently and then the weighted average over all semesters is used to calculate the cumulative grade point average (known as CGPA or CPI—Cumulative Performance Index).
The Bachelor of Technology (BTech) degree is the most common undergraduate degree in the IITs in terms of student enrollment,[ಸೂಕ್ತ ಉಲ್ಲೇಖನ ಬೇಕು] although dual degrees integrating Master of Science or Master of Arts are also offered. The BTech course is based on a 4-year program with eight semesters, while the Dual Degree and Integrated courses are 5-year programs with ten semesters. In all IITs, the first year of BTech and Dual Degree courses are marked by a common course structure for all the students, though in some IITs, a single department introduction related course is also included. The common courses include the basics from most of the departments like Electronics, Mechanics, Chemistry, Electrical and Physics. At the end of first year (the end of first semester at IIT Madras), an option to change departments is given to meritorious students on the basis of their performance in the first two semesters. Few such changes ultimately take place as the criteria for them are usually strict, limited to the most meritorious students.
From the second year onwards, the students study subjects exclusively from their respective departments. In addition to these, the students have to take compulsory advanced courses from other departments in order to broaden their education. Separate compulsory courses from humanities and social sciences department, and sometimes management courses are also enforced. In the last year of their studies, most of the students are placed into industries and organisations via the placement process of the respective IIT, though some students opt out of this either when going for higher studies or when they take up jobs by applying to the companies directly.
Postgraduate and doctoral education[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]
- Master's degrees and postgraduate diplomas
The IITs offer a number of postgraduate programs including Master of Technology (MTech), Master of Business Administration (MBA) (only for engineers and post graduates in science), and Master of Science (MSc). Some IITs offer specialised graduate programmes such as Master of Design (M.Des.), the Post Graduate Diploma in Information Technology (PGDIT), Master in Medical Science and Technology (MMST), Master of City Planning (MCP), Master of Arts (MA), Postgraduate Diploma in Intellectual Property Law (PGDIPL), and the Postgraduate Diploma in Maritime Operation & Management (PGDMOM).
Some of the IITs offer an M.S. (by research) program; the MTech and M.S. are similar to the US universities' non-thesis (course based) and thesis (research based) masters programs respectively. Admissions to masters programs in engineering are made using scores of the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE), while those to masters programs in science are made using scores of the Joint Admission Test to MSc (JAM).
Several IITs have schools of management offering master's degrees in management or business administration.
- Bachelors-Masters dual degrees
The IITs also offer an unconventional BTech and MTech integrated educational program called "Dual Degree". It integrates undergraduate and postgraduate studies in selected areas of specialisation. It is completed in five years as against six years in conventional BTech (four years) followed by an MTech (two years). Integrated Master of Science programs are also offered at few IITs which integrates the Undergraduate and Postgraduate studies in Science streams in a single degree program against the conventional University system. These programs were started to allow IITians to complete postgraduate studies from IIT rather than having to go to another institute.
- Doctoral degrees
The IITs also offer the Doctor of Philosophy degree (PhD) as part of their doctoral education programme. In it, the candidates are given a topic of academic interest by the professor or have to work on a consultancy project given by the industries. The duration of the program is usually unspecified and depends on the specific discipline. PhD candidates have to submit a dissertation as well as provide an oral defence for their thesis. Teaching Assistantships (TA) and Research Assistantships (RA) are often provided.
Culture and student life[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]
All the IITs provide on-campus residential facilities to the students, research scholars and faculty. The students live in hostels (sometimes referred to as halls) throughout their stay in the IIT. Students in all IITs must choose between National Cadet Corps (NCC), National Service Scheme (NSS) and National Sports Organisation (NSO) in their first years. All the IITs have sports grounds for basketball, cricket, football (soccer), hockey, volleyball, lawn tennis, badminton, and athletics; and swimming pools for aquatic events. Usually the hostels also have their own sports grounds. Moreover, an Inter IIT Sports Meet is organized annually where participants from all 16 IITs contest for the General Championship Trophy in 13 different sports.
Technical and cultural festivals[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]
All IITs organise annual technical festivals, typically lasting three or four days. The technical festivals are Shaastra (IIT Madras), Kshitij (IIT Kharagpur), Techfest (IIT Bombay), Cognizance (IIT Roorkee) which also happens to be one of the largest technical festival in Asia, Concetto (IIT Dhanbad), Nvision (IIT Hyderabad), Amalthea (technical summit)(IIT Gandhinagar), Technex (IIT BHU), Techkriti (IIT Kanpur), Tryst (IIT Delhi), Techniche (IIT Guwahati), Wissenaire (IIT Bhubaneswar), Exodia (IIT Mandi), Fluxus (IIT Indore), Celesta (IIT Patna) and IGNUS (IIT Jodhpur). Most of them are organised in the months of January or March. Techfest (IIT Bombay) is also one of the most popular and largest technical festival in Asia in terms of participants and prize money involved. It has been granted patronage from United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) for providing a platform to students to showcase their talent in science and technology. Shaastra holds the distinction of being the first student-managed event in the world to implement a formal Quality Management System, earning ISO 9001:2000 certification. Kshitij is the largest in terms of Sponsorship amounts and also branded as a techno-management festival due to its emphasis on both technology and management.
Annual cultural festivals are also organised by the IITs and last three to four days. These include Alcheringa (IIT Guwahati), Exodia (IIT Mandi), Saarang (IIT Madras, previously Mardi Gras), Spring Fest (IIT Kharagpur, also known as SF), Rendezvous (IIT Delhi), Srijan (IIT Dhanbad), Tarang (previously Rave) and Thomso (IIT Roorkee), Kashiyatra (IIT BHU, also known as KY), SPANDAN (IIT Rajasthan), Blithchron (IIT Gandhinagar), ELAN (IIT Hyderabad), Alma Fiesta (IIT Bhubaneswar), Mood Indigo (IIT Bombay, also known as Mood-I), Antaragni (IIT Kanpur), Zeitgeist (IIT Ropar) and Anwesha (IIT Patna).
IITs have a special status as Institutes of National Importance under the Indian Institute of Technology Act, so the degrees provided by IITs need not be recognised by the AICTE. The IIT-JEE (Now known as JEE-Advanced) and GATE are two important factors behind the success of IITs, as it enables the IITs to accept only a select group of meritorious students. This combination of success factors has led to the concept of the IIT Brand. Other factors that have contributed to the success of IITs are stringent faculty recruitment procedures and industry collaboration. The procedure for selection of faculty in IITs is stricter as compared to other colleges offering similar degrees. The PhD degree is a pre-requisite for all regular faculty appointments.
Former IIT students get greater respect from their peers, academia and industry in general. The IIT brand was reaffirmed when the United States House of Representatives passed a resolution honouring Indian Americans and especially graduates of IIT for their contributions to the American society. Similarly, China also recognised the value of IITs and planned to replicate the model.
Nationwide, most IITs are ranked above any other engineering colleges in India in engineering education rankings. Outlook India's Top Engineering Colleges of 2015 ranked seven IITs in its top 10, including the top six positions. IITs are also one of the institutes with the least acceptance rate on the world rankings with a mere acceptance rate of 2% 
Worldwide, the only six institutes in India ranked in the top 300 of the QS World University Rankings of 2015 are IISc Bangalore (at 147) and 5 IITs, IIT Delhi at 179, IIT Bombay at 202, IIT Madras at 254, IIT Kanpur at 271 and IIT Kharagpur at 286. The only Institute that was listed in the top 400 by Times Higher Education rankings was IIT Bombay in the 351-400 category. The Times Asia Rankings featured IIT Roorkee, IIT Bombay, IIT Delhi, IIT Kharagpur, and IIT Madras at 55th, 57th, 65th, 69th and 78th respectively.
The IITs have faced criticism from within and outside academia. Major concerns include allegations that they encourage brain drain and that their stringent entrance examinations encourage coaching colleges and skew the socio-economic profile of the student body. Recently some prominent IITians have also questioned the quality of teaching and research in IITs.
Among the criticisms of the IIT system by the media and academia, a common notion is that it encourages brain drain. This trend has been reversed somewhat- (dubbed the reverse brain drain) – as hundreds of IIT graduates, who have pursued further studies in the USA, started returning to India in the 1990s. Additionally, IIT alumni are giving back generously to their parent institutions (examples are Kanwal Rekhi to IIT Bombay, Dr. Prabhakant Sinha to IIT Kharagpur, and many others). Until liberalisation started in early 1990s, India experienced large scale emigration of IITians to developed countries, especially to the United States. Since 1953, nearly twenty-five thousand IITians have settled in the USA. Since the USA benefited from subsidised education in IITs at the cost of Indian taxpayers' money, critics say that subsidising education in IITs is useless. Others support the emigration of graduates, arguing that the capital sent home by the IITians has been a major source of the expansion of foreign exchange reserves for India, which, until the 1990s, had a substantial trade deficit.
The extent of intellectual loss receded substantially over the 1990s and 2000s, with the percentage of students going abroad dropping from as high as 70% at one time to around 30% in 2005. This is largely attributed to the liberalisation of the Indian economy and the opening of previously closed markets. Government initiatives are encouraging IIT students into entrepreneurship programs and are increasing foreign investment. Emerging scientific and manufacturing industries, and outsourcing of technical jobs from North America and Western Europe have created opportunities for aspiring graduates in India. Many undergraduates go abroad to pursue further studies, such as MS, MBA and PhD.
The highly competitive examination in the form of IIT-JEE has led to establishment of a large number of coaching institutes throughout the country that provide intensive, and specific preparation for the IIT-JEE for substantial fees. It is argued that this favours students from specific regions and richer backgrounds. Some coaching institutes say that they have individually coached nearly 800 successful candidates year after year. According to some estimates, nearly 95% of all students who clear the IIT-JEE had joined coaching classes. Indeed, this was the case regarding preparation for IIT entrance exams even decades ago. In a January 2010 lecture at the Indian Institute of Science, the 2009 Nobel laureate in Chemistry, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan revealed that he failed to get a seat at any of the Indian engineering and medical colleges. He also said that his parents, being old-fashioned, did not believe in coaching classes to prepare for the IIT entrance exam and considered them to be "nonsense".
Not all children are of a similar aptitude level and may be skilled in different paradigms and fields. This has led to criticism of the way the examinations are conducted and the way a student is forced in the Indian community. The IIT-JEE format was restructured in 2006 following these complaints. After the change to the objective pattern of questioning, even the students who initially considered themselves not fit for subjective pattern of IIT-JEE decided to take the examination. Though the restructuring was meant to reduce the dependence of students on coaching classes, it led to an increase in students registering for coaching classes. Some people (mostly IITians) have criticised the changed pattern of the IIT-JEE. Their reasoning is that while IIT-JEE traditionally used to test students understanding of fundamentals and ability to apply them to solve tough unseen problems, the current pattern does not stress much on the application part and might lead to a reduced quality of students.
Another criticism is about the language of the exam. IIT-JEE is conducted only in English and Hindi, making it harder for students where regional languages, like Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Urdu, Oriya, Bengali, Marathi, Assamese or Gujarati, are more prominent. As an example, in September 2011, the Gujarat High Court has acted on a Public Interest Litigation by the Gujarati Sahitya Parishad, for conducting the exams in Gujarati. A second petition was made in October by Navsari's Sayaji Vaibhav Sarvajanik Pustakalaya Trust. Another petition was made at the Madras High Court for conducting the exam in Tamil. In the petition it was claimed that not conducting the exam in the regional languages is in violation of article 14 of the Constitution of India. IIT council has recommended major changes in entrance examination structure which will be effected from 2017 onwards.
As of 2008[update], the alumni of IIT number more than 170,000. The IITians are known for their loyalty to their alma mater and many IIT Alumni Associations are active in India and abroad. The IIT alumni either help their alma mater in the form of donations, or by preferential job opportunities extended to students from the IITs. The Vinod Gupta School of Management at IIT Kharagpur and Shailesh J. Mehta School of Management at IIT Bombay are management schools within IITs that have been established largely by alumni donations; these schools were named after their benefactors.[ಸೂಕ್ತ ಉಲ್ಲೇಖನ ಬೇಕು]
Many IIT's alumni have become entrepreneurs, including
- N. R. Narayana Murthy (co-founder and former chairman of Infosys),
- Rajendra S. Pawar (co-founder and Chairman of NIIT),
- Vinod Khosla (co-founder, Sun Microsystems),
- Ajit Gupta (founder, president and CEO of Aryaka),
- Anurag Dikshit (co-founder of PartyGaming)
- Suhas S. Patil (founder and Chairman Emeritus Cirrus Logic Inc.)
- Gunjan Sinha, (co-founder of eGain and MetricStream)
- Sachin Bansal and Binny Bansal, (founders of Flipkart, one of the biggest e-commerce firms in India.)
- Sumant Sinha, businessman
Other alumni have achieved leading positions in corporations, such as:
- Rajat Gupta (former Managing Director, McKinsey),
- Nikesh Arora(Vice Chairman of SoftBank Corp. and CEO of SoftBank Internet and Media, Inc. (SIMI)),
- Sundar Pichai (CEO, Google)
- Vic Gundotra (former Senior Vice President at Google.)
- Amit Singhal (Senior Vice President, Search and Google Fellow at Google.)
- Arun Sarin (former CEO, Vodafone),
- Victor Menezes (Senior Vice Chairman, Citigroup),
- Kanwal Rekhi (CTO, Novell),
- Padmasree Warrior (CTO, Cisco Systems).
- Ashishkumar Chauhan (MD & CEO, BSE)
- Chandra Kintala (Vice President, Bell Laboratories)
IIT alumni have also pursued careers in politics; for example:
- Krishan Kant (former Vice-President of India),
- Manohar Parrikar (Current Defense Minister of India, former Chief Minister of Goa),
- Jayant Sinha, Union Minister of State for Finance, Government of India, former Partner at McKinsey & Company and Managing Director at Omidyar Network
- Arvind Kejriwal (former Indian Revenue Service officer and the present Chief Minister of Delhi).
- Jairam Ramesh was former union minister in Ministry of Environment and Forests and Minister of Rural Development.
Many alumni have gained significant recognition:
- Duvvuri Subbarao was the Former Governor of Reserve Bank of India,
- Raghuram Rajan is the Current Governor of Reserve Bank of India,
- Sushantha Kumar Bhattacharyya was awarded the CBE, a knighthood, and Padma Bhushan,
- Kota Harinarayana was a Padma Shri awardee and distinguished scientist at DRDO;
- V. C. Kulandaiswamy was awarded Padma Shri and Padma Bhushan,
- Arogyaswami Paulraj well known for his work in wireless technology was awarded Padma Bhushan,
- Narendra Karmarkar is also known for his work in applied mathematics,
- Chetan Bhagat is an author, columnist, screenwriter, and speaker,
- Sandeep Pandey is an Indian social activist. He co-founded Asha for Education and was awarded the Ramon Magsaysay Award in 2002 for the emergent leadership category,
- Rajiv Dixit was an Indian social activist. He served as the National Secretary of Bharat Swabhiman Andolan.
Many IITians have contributed to innovations in science and technology, such as
- Narendra Karmarkar, leading TIFR scientist and developer of Karmarkar's algorithm for mathematical optimization
- Pulickel Ajayan a pioneering scientist in the field of carbon nanotubes
- Subhash Khot, computer scientist and Rolf Nevanlinna Prize winner
- Madhu Sudan, Rolf Nevanlinna Prize and Godel Prize winner
- Ashoke Sen, string theorist
- Nikhil Srivastva, joint winner of the George Polya prize in mathematics
- Rajeev Motwani, winner of Gödel prize in 2001 for his work in theoretical computer science
- Beheruz N. Sethna, the first person of Indian origin to become President of a university in the United States
- Pranav Mistry, Noted inventor and computer scientist
- Joydeep Ghosh, Machine Learning expert
- National Institutes of Technology
- Indian Institute of Information Technology
- Indian Institute of Science
- Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology
- Indian Institute of Science Education and Research
- Indian Institutes of Management
- All India Institute of Medical Sciences
- Central University, India
- National Law School
- School of Planning and Architecture
- National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
- National Institute of Design
- Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering
- Joint Entrance Examination
- Jain, Mahesh C. (2009). Textbook of Engineering Physics (Part I). PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. p. 9. ISBN 81-203-3862-6., Chapter 1, p. 9
- Judith P. Zinsser (2007). Emilie du Chatelet: Daring Genius of the Enlightenment. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-311268-6.
- Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
IIT Act As amended till 2012
- Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- See "more IIT" in references below. Under "Final selection", third paragraph
- "The Institutes of Technology Act, 1961" (PDF). Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. 24 May 2005. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
- Upadhyaya, Yogesh K (23 March 2005). "The making of new IITs". Rediff.com. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
- Upadhyaya, Yogesh K (18 August 2005). "The march of the new IITs". Rediff.com. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
- "IIT-Council". IIT Kharagpur. 18 November 2005. Archived from the original on 21 September 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
- "Organisational Structure". IIT Kharagpur. 18 November 2005. Archived from the original on 22 September 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
- "Organizational Structure". Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. 3 March 2006. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
- "Performance based funding of IITs" (PDF). IISc. 10 February 2004. p. 3. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
- Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- Rajguru, Suvarna (30 December 2005). "What makes the IITs so chic". LittleINDIA. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
- Natarajan, R. "The Evolution of Postgraduate Engineering Education and Research in India" (PDF). CAGS 2005 Conference. Canadian Association for Graduate Studies. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2006. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
- "Kakodkar panel suggests steep hike in tuition fee at IITs – Indian Express". The Indian Express. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
- "Structure of B. Tech Programme (Ordinance under R.2.9)". Ordinances. IIT Madras. Archived from the original on 22 June 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007.[dead link]
- "NPTEL". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 9 March 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
- Prabhu, S.S. (September–November 2000). "Engineering Education in a Flux". Report of the Review Committee. IIT Kanpur. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
- "Structure of B. Tech Programme (Ordinance No.3)". Ordinances. IIT Madras. Archived from the original on 22 June 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007.[dead link]
- "Structure of B. Tech Programme (Ordinance under R.4.2:Class Committee)". Ordinances. IIT Madras. Archived from the original on 22 June 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007.[dead link]
- "Structure of B. Tech Programme (Ordinance under R.5.0:Change of Branch)". Ordinances. IIT Madras. Archived from the original on 22 June 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
- "Structure of B. Tech Programme (Ordinance under R.2.0 (ii))". Ordinances. IIT Madras. Archived from the original on 22 June 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007.[dead link]
- "Structure of B. Tech Programme (Ordinance under R.2.0 (iii))". Ordinances. IIT Madras. Archived from the original on 22 June 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2007.[dead link]
- Senate, IIT Madras. "B. Tech Ordinances". Senate Ordinances. IIT Madras. Archived from the original on 17 May 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2006.
- Ordinance under Ordinance No. 3[dead link]
- Natarajan, R. "The Evolution of Postgraduate Engineering Education and Research in India" (PDF). CAGS 2005 Conference. Canadian Association for Graduate Studies. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2006. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
- Natarajan, R. "The Evolution of Postgraduate Engineering Education and Research in India" (PDF). CAGS 2005 Conference. Canadian Association for Graduate Studies. p. 25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2006. Retrieved 27 August 2005.
- "Getting Admission to PhD Seats in IITs gets simplified". Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Students of central institutes can join PhD in IITs without GATE". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- [dead link] Ordinance under R.27.0 NCC / NSO / NSS Requirements Archived ೨೨ ಜೂನ್ ೨೦೦೭ at the Wayback Machine[dead link]
- The Director, IIT Madras (8 May 2005). "Director's Report" (PDF). IIT Madras. p. 36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 May 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2006.
- Welcome To AICTE
- Kumar, Prabhat (18 February 2003). "How to extend the IIT brand". The Hindu – Businessline. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
- "Example of Faculty Recruitment Page of IIT Kharagpur". IIT Kharagpur. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
- "Taking Wings". Times News Network. Archived from the original on 8 October 2006.
- The Library of, Congress (26 April 2005). "House Resolution 227". Bill Text for the 109th Congress (2005–2006). The House of Representatives, U.S. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
- Iype, George (8 April 2005). "Wen might take IIT to China". Rediff.com. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
- "Top 100 Engineering Colleges in 2015". Outlook India. 6 July 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- Shiragannavar, Adarsh (6 Mar 2015). "IIT-Bengaluru will be the best in its league within 5 years". NYOOOZ. Nyoooz.
- "QS World University Rankings". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- "IIT, IIM faculty not world-class: Jairam Ramesh". India Education Review. 24 May 2011.
- "What ails the IITs". Yahoo News India. 25 October 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "Poor quality of students entering IITs: Narayana Murthy - The Times of India". The Times of India.
- IANS (7 March 2006). "Trend of brain drain on reverse to India". The Hindustan Times. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
- Friedman, Thomas L. (2006). The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century. USA: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 104–105. ISBN 0-374-29288-4.
- "Successful students in IIT-JEE 2005". Brilliant Tutorials. Archived from the original on 21 April 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
- Idichandy, V G (11 October 2005). "Why the IIT-JEE pattern was changed". Rediff.com. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
- "Nobel laureate Venkat Ramakrishnan failed IIT, medical entrance tests". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "Change in IIT-JEE pattern from academic year 2006". Education4India.com. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
- Rukmini Shrinivasan & Hemali Chhapia (31 March 2006). "3 lakh students to vie for IIT entry this year". The Times of India. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
- Jhimli Mukherjee Pandey (4 May 2005). "Crack the IIT code, it's too easy". The Times of India. Retrieved 30 May 2006.
- "Sahitya Parishad demands entrance tests in Gujarati – Times Of India". indiatimes.com. 21 September 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Another PIL seeks entrance tests in Gujarati – Times Of India". indiatimes.com. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Plea to write IIT entrance in Tamil | Deccan Chronicle". The Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- "Changes in IIT Entrance Examination Structure".
- "PM's inaugural address at the 'PAN IIT-2008' – IIT Alumni Global Conference". Press Information Bureau. 19 December 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2009.
- Rogers, Bruce (19 November 2012). "How Ajit Gupta's Aryaka is Disrupting the Wide Area Network Business". Forbes.
- "IITBHUGlobal.org ( alumni.iitbhu.ac.in )". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "Training & Placement Cell, IIT (BHU) Varanasi". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "IITBHUGlobal.org: The Chronicle: Scientist Kota Harinarayan (Mechanical 1965) conferred with Lokmanya Tilak award". Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- Rajguru, Suvarna; Pant, Ranjan (2003). IIT India's Intellectual Treasures. India: Indus Media. ISBN 0-9747393-0-8.
- Kripalani, Manjeet; Engardio, Pete; Spiro, Leah Nathans (1998). "INDIA'S WHIZ KIDS – Inside the Indian Institutes of Technology's star factory". BusinessWeek (International ed.).
- Kirpal, Viney; Gupta, Meenakshi (1999). Equality Through Reservations. India: Vedams. ISBN 81-7033-526-4.
- Deb, Sandipan (2004). The IITians. India: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-04986-7.
- Murali, Kanta (1 February 2003). "The IIT Story: Issues and Concerns". Frontline Magazine – Volume 20 – Issue 03. Frontline. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
- Rajguru, Suvarna (30 December 2005). "What makes the IITs so chic". LittleINDIA. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
- Gates, Bill (17 January 2003). "Bill Gates Speech Transcript – Indian Institute of Technology 50th Anniversary Celebration Keynote". Microsoft corporation. Retrieved 29 April 2008.
- Bhagat, Chetan (2004). Five Point Someone - What not to do at IIT. India: Rupa & Co. ISBN 81-291-0459-8.
- Agarwal, Rajeev (2013). What I Did Not Learn at IIT. India: Random House. ISBN 978-8-184-00486-1.
- Subbarao, E.C. (2008). An Eye for Excellence – 50 innovative years of IIT Kanpur. India: Harper Collins India. ISBN 978-81-7223-769-1.