ಟೆಂಪ್ಲೇಟು:Citation/doc

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This documentation subpage contains instructions, categories, or other information that is not part of the ಟೆಂಪ್ಲೇಟು. To view the ಟೆಂಪ್ಲೇಟು page itself, see ಟೆಂಪ್ಲೇಟು:Citation.

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

If invoked with the right parameters, this template produces output identical to that of the Cite templates, such as {{Cite book}} and {{Cite web}}. The default behavior sometimes differs from that of the Cite templates; for example, this template by default generates anchors for Harvard references whereas the Cite templates do not (although they can be made to do so), and this template by default uses commas to separate some fields that the Cite templates separate with periods (full stops).

The template should be inserted after punctuation, such as a period or comma.

All parameter names are lowercase.

Simple citation[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

This template gives the most commonly used attributes. You can copy the horizontal form or vertical form below and then add in extra attributes from the full list. Spacing and ordering is irrelevant.

{{Citation |last= |first= |year= |title= |publisher= |publication-place= |page= |url= |accessdate= }}

{{Citation
| last       =
| first      =
| year       =
| title      =
| publisher  =
| publication-place =
| page       =
| url        =
| accessdate =
}}
  • last: The author's surname or last name. Don't use with author.
  • first: The author's first or given name(s).
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation, unless |date= specifies both month and year.
  • title: Title of the work. Mandatory for web references.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press. Not normally included where the publication is a periodical which has its own Wikipedia article (e.g. Newsweek, Billboard).
    • publication-place (or place or location): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. Omit when the publication is a periodical whose name specifies the location (e.g. The New York Times, The Times of India)
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
  • url: A url of an online location where the item can be found. If the url includes double quotes, these must be encoded as "%22".
    • accessdate: Date[n ೧] when the url was accessed (only useful for content that does not have an identifiable and cited publication date).

Example[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

{{Citation
| last      = Turner
| first     = Orsamus
| title     = History of the pioneer settlement of
Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve
| publisher = William Alling
| place     = Rochester, New York
| year      = 1851
| id        = {{OL|7120924W}}
}}
Turner, Orsamus (1851), History of the pioneer settlement of Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve, Rochester, New York: William Alling, OL7120924W 

Full citation parameters[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

These can be used for all types of publication except patents. All are optional and indentation is used simply to group related items — these may be mutually exclusive where indicated. Some hyphenated names can also be placed without hyphens.

{{Citation
| author  =
| last    =
| first   =
| author2 =
| last2   =
| first2  =
| author-link  =
| author2-link =
| author-separator =
| author-name-separator =
| author-mask =
| display-authors =
| editor        =
| editor-last   =
| editor-first  =
| editor2       =
| editor2-last  =
| editor2-first =
| editor-link   =
| editor2-link  =
| others   =
| publication-date =
| date     =
| year     =
| month    =
| origyear =
| title    =
| chapter  =
| chapter-url  =
| contribution =
| contribution-url =
| type    =
| journal =
| periodical =
| newspaper  =
| magazine   =
| work =
| edition =
| series  =
| volume  =
| issue   =
| publisher =
| publication-place =
| place    =
| language =
| page  =
| pages =
| nopp  =
| at   =
| id   =
| isbn =
| issn =
| oclc =
| pmid =
| pmc  =
| bibcode =
| doi =
| doi_inactivedate =
| zbl =
| url =
| accessdate  =
| format      =
| archiveurl  =
| archivedate =
| quote      =
| layurl =
| laysource  =
| laydate    =
| separator  = ,
| postscript =
| ref =
}}

Parameters[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Syntax[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a comma (,).

COinS[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata. See Wikipedia:COinS. As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

  • Use |date=27 September 2007 not |date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)

Use of templates within the citation template is discouraged because many of these templates will add extraneous HTML or CSS that will be included raw in the metadata. Also, HTML entities, for example  , –, etc, should not be used in parameters that contribute to the metadata. Do not include Wiki markup '' (italic font) or ''' (bold font) because these markup characters will contaminate the metadata.

COinS metadata is created for these parameters
  • |periodical=, |journal=, |newspaper=, |magazine=, |work=, |website=, |encyclopedia=, |encyclopaedia=, |dictionary=
  • |chapter=, |contribution=, |entry=, |article=, |section=
  • |title=
  • |publication-place=, |publicationplace=, |place=, |location=
  • |date=, |year=, |publication-date=, |publicationdate=
  • |series=, |version=
  • |volume=
  • |issue=, |number=
  • |page=, |pages=, |at=
  • |edition=
  • |publisher=, |distributor=, |institution=
  • |url=
  • |chapter-url=, |chapterurl=, |contribution-url=, |contributionurl=, |section-url=, |sectionurl=
  • |author#=, |author-last#=, |author#-last=, |last#=, |surname#=
  • |author-first#=, |author#-first=, |first#=, |given#=
  • any of the named identifiers (|isbn=, |issn=, |doi=, |pmc=, etc)

Deprecated[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

None of the cs1|2 parameters are deprecated.

Description[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Authors[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  • last: Surname of author. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: last1, author, authors, author1.
    • first: Given or first names of author, including title(s); for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead. Aliases: first1. Requires last; first name will not display if last is empty.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through lastn, firstn where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of authors (each firstn requires a corresponding lastn). By default, if nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and "et al." will show in place of the last author. See the display parameters to change. Aliases: author1 through authorn.
  • authorlink: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: authorlink1, author-link, author1-link, author1link.
  • OR: for multiple authors, use authorlink1 through authorlinkn. Aliases: author1-link through authorn-link.
  • coauthors: (deprecated) Names of coauthors. Requires author, authors, or lastn Include coauthors in author or authors or use separate authorn or lastn/firstn to list coauthors.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, such as Illustrated by John Smith or Translated by John Smith.
When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field or else the anchor will not match the inline link.

Editors[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  • editor-last: Surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor1-last, editor, editors.
    • editor-first: Given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor1-first.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-last, editor1-first through editor4-last, editor4-first for up to four editors.
  • editor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor1-link.
  • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-link through editor4-link.
Display:
If authors: Authors are first, followed by the editors and the included work, then the main work.
If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."; more than three editors will be followed by "et al., eds."

Title[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  • title: Title of source. Can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in italics. If script-title is defined, title holds romanized transliteration of title in script-title.
    • script-title: Original title for languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc); not italicized, follows italicized transliteration defined in title. May be prefixed with an ISO 639-1 two-character code to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |title=Tōkyō tawā |script-title=ja:東京タワー |trans-title=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; if url is defined, then trans-title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space [ ] {{!}} (preferred)
{{bracket|text}} | or {{pipe}}see also Help:Table § Rendering the pipe
  • title-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the source named in title – do not use a web address; do not wikilink. Alias: titlelink.
  • chapter: The chapter heading of the source. May be wikilinked or may use chapter-url, but not both. Displays in quotes.
    • script-chapter: Chapter heading for languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc); follows transliteration defined in chapter. Should be prefixed with an ISO 639-1 two-character code to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |chapter=Tōkyō tawā |script-chapter=ja:東京タワー |trans-chapter=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-chapter: English translation of the chapter heading, if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after the chapter field; if chapter-url is defined, then trans-chapter is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
  • type: Provides additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case. Displays in parentheses following the title. Examples: Thesis, Booklet, CD liner, Press release. Alias: medium.
  • language: The language in which the source is written. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name or names. Use the full language name or ISO 639-1 code. When the source uses more than one language, list them individually, separated by commas, e.g. |language=French, German. The use of language names or language codes recognized by Wikimedia adds the page to the appropriate subcategory of Category:CS1 foreign language sources; do not use templates or wikilinks. Note: When the language is "English" (or "en"), no language is displayed in the citation. Note: When two or more languages are listed there is no need to include "and" before the last language. "and" is inserted automatically by the template.

Date[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  • date: Date of source being referenced. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, season and year, year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[೧] Required when year is used to disambiguate {{sfn}} links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.
  • OR:
    • year: Year of source being referenced. Required with some types of {{sfn}} citations;[more] otherwise use date.
    • month: (deprecated) Name of the month or season of publication. Use date instead.
    • origyear: Original publication year; displays after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: |origyear=First published 1859 or |origyear=Composed 1904.
  1. Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. See: MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Periodical[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  • work: Name of the source periodical; may be wikilinked if relevant. Displays in italics. Aliases: journal, newspaper, magazine, periodical, website.
    • issue: When the publication is one of a series that is published periodically. Alias: number. When the issue has a special title of its own, this may be given, in italics, along with the issue number, e.g. |issue=2, ''Modern Canadian Literature''. Displayed in parentheses following volume.
When set, work changes the formatting of other parameters:
title is not italicized and is enclosed in quotes.
chapter does not display in this citation template (and will produce an error message).
location and publisher are enclosed in parentheses.
page and pages do not show p. or pp.
edition does not display.

Publisher[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  • publisher: Name of publisher; may be wikilinked if relevant. The publisher is the company that publishes the work being cited. Do not use the publisher parameter for the name of a work (e.g., a book, encyclopedia, newspaper, magazine, journal, website). Not normally used for periodicals. Corporate designations such as "Ltd", "Inc" or "GmbH" are not usually included. Omit where the publisher's name is substantially the same as the name of the work (for example, The New York Times Co. publishes The New York Times newspaper, so there is no reason to name the publisher). Displays after title; if work is defined, then publisher is enclosed in parentheses.
  • place: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked; omit when the name of the work includes the location; examples: The Boston Globe, The Times of India. Displays after the title; if work is defined, then location is enclosed in parentheses. Alias: location
  • publication-place: If any one of publication-place, place or location are defined, then the location shows after the title; if publication-place and place or location are defined, then place or location are shown before the title prefixed with "written at" and publication-place is shown after the title.
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.

Edition, series, volume[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  • edition: When the publication has more than one edition; for example: "2nd", "Revised", and so forth. Appends the string " ed." after the field, so |edition=2nd produces "2nd ed." Does not display if a periodical field is defined.
  • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.
  • volume: For one publication published in several volumes. Displays after the title and series fields; displays in bold— if bolding is not desired, then include the volume information in the title field.

In-source locations[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  • page: The number of a single page in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Displays preceded by p. unless |nopp=y.
  • OR: pages: A range of pages in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Separate using an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source. Displays preceded by pp. unless |nopp=y. Hyphens are automatically converted to en dashes; if hyphens are appropriate, for example: pp. 3-1–3-15, use |at=.
    • nopp: Set to y to suppress the p. or pp. notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover.
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient. Overridden by |page= or |pages=. Use only one of |page=, |pages=, or |at=.
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.

URL[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Remove spurious tracking parameters from URLs, e.g. #ixzz2rBr3aO94 or ?utm_source=google&utm_medium=...&utm_term=...&utm_campaign=.... Do not link to any commercial booksellers, such as Amazon.com. See: WP:PAGELINKS.
    • accessdate: Full date when original URL was accessed; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations; requires url.[೧] Do not wikilink. Not required for web pages or linked documents that do not change; mainly for use of web pages that change frequently or have no publication date. Can be hidden or styled by registered editors.
    • archiveurl: The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the url becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite (see: Wikipedia:Using WebCite) and Internet Archive (see: Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine); requires archivedate and url.
      • archivedate: Date when the original URL was archived; preceded by default text "archived from the original on". Use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations. This does not necessarily have to be the same format that was used for citing publication dates.[೧] Do not wikilink.
      • deadurl: When the URL is still live, but pre-emptively archived, then set |deadurl=no. This changes the display order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end.
    • template doc demo: The archive parameters will be error checked to ensure that all the required parameters are included, or else {{citation error}} is invoked. With errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template doc demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • format: Format of the work referred to by url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after title. HTML is implied and should not be specified. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.
URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: may require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.
If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:
sp " ' < > [ ] { | }
%20 %22 %27 %3c %3e %5b %5d %7b %7c %7d
Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.
  1. ೧.೦ ೧.೧ Accessdate and archivedate in references should all have the same format – either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD. See: MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Anchor[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Identifiers[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable.

These identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier. In general, the parameters should include only the variable part of the identifier, e.g. rfc=822 or pmc=345678.

  • arxiv: arXiv identifier; for example: arxiv=hep-th/9205027 (before April 2007) or arxiv=0706.0001 or arxiv=1501.00001 (since April 2007). Do not include extraneous file extensions like ".pdf" or ".html".
  • asin: Amazon Standard Identification Number; if first character of asin value is a digit, use isbn. Because this link favours one specific distributor, only include it if standard identifiers aren't available.
    • asin-tld: ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US; valid values: au, br, ca, cn, co.jp, co.uk, de, es, fr, it, mx
  • bibcode: Bibcode; used by a number of astronomical data systems; for example: 1974AJ.....79..819H
  • biorxiv: bioRxiv id, a 6-digit number at the end of the biorXiv URL (e.g. 078733 for http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/10/01/078733 or http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/078733)
  • citeseerx: CiteSeerX id, a string of digits and dots found in a CiteSeerX URL (e.g. 10.1.1.176.341 for http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.176.341 )
  • doi: Digital object identifier; for example: 10.1038/news070508-7. It is checked to ensure it begins with (10.).
    • doi-broken-date: Date the DOI was found to be non-working at http://dx.doi.org. Use the same format as other dates in the article. Alias: doi_brokendate, doi-inactive-date
  • eissn: International Standard Serial Number for the electronic media of a serial publication; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space. Alias: EISSN
  • hdl: Handle System identifier for digital objects and other resources on the Internet. Alias: HDL
  • isbn: International Standard Book Number; for example: 978-0-8126-9593-9. (See Wikipedia:ISBN and ISBN § Overview.) Dashes in the ISBN are optional, but preferred. Use the ISBN actually printed on or in the book. Use the 13-digit ISBN – beginning with 978 or 979 – when it is available. If only a 10-digit ISBN is printed on or in the book, use it. ISBNs can be found on the page with the publisher's information – usually the back of the title page – or beneath the barcode as a number beginning with 978 or 979 (barcodes beginning with any other numbers are not ISBNs). For sources with the older 9-digit SBN system, prefix the number with a zero; thus, SBN 902888-45-5 should be entered as |isbn=0-902888-45-5. Do not convert a 10-digit ISBN to 13-digit by just adding the 978 prefix; the last digit is a calculated check digit and just making changes to the numbers will make the ISBN invalid. This parameter should hold only the ISBN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens, with "X" permitted as the last character in a 10-digit ISBN – and the proper check digit. Alias: ISBN
  • ismn: International Standard Music Number; for example: 979-0-9016791-7-7. Hyphens or spaces in the ISMN are optional. Use the ISMN actually printed on or in the work. This parameter should hold only the ISMN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens – and the proper check digit. Alias: ISMN
  • issn: International Standard Serial Number; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space. Alias: ISSN
  • jfm: Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik
  • jstor: JSTOR reference number; for example: jstor=3793107 will generate JSTOR 3793107.
  • lccn: Library of Congress Control Number. When present, alphabetic prefix characters are to be lower case.
  • mr: Mathematical Reviews
  • oclc: OCLC; WorldCat's Online Computer Library Center
  • ol: Open Library identifier; do not include "OL" in the value.
  • osti: Office of Scientific and Technical Information
  • pmc: PubMed Central; use article number for full-text free repository of a journal article, e.g. pmc=345678. Do not include "PMC" in the value. See also the pmid parameter, below; these are two different identifiers.
    • embargo: Date that pmc goes live; if this date is in the future, then pmc is not linked until that date.
  • pmid: PubMed; use unique identifier. See also the pmc parameter, above; these are two different identifiers.
  • rfc: Request for Comments
  • ssrn: Social Science Research Network
  • zbl: Zentralblatt MATH

Quote[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes.

Laysummary[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  • layurl: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary". Aliases: laysummary.
    • laysource: Name of the source of the laysummary. Displays in italics and preceded by an endash.
    • laydate: Date of the summary. Displays in parentheses.

Display options[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  • author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed.
  • author-name-separator: Controls the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space (, ); if the parameter is present, but blank, separator punctuation is set to the default; a space must be encoded as &#32;.
  • author-separator: Controls the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space (; ); if the parameter is present, but blank, separator punctuation is set to the default; a space must be encoded as &#32;.
  • display-authors: Controls the number of author names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of authors, set display-authors to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation. By default, all authors are displayed except when there are nine authors, then the author list in the citation is truncated to eight authors, followed by "et al." This exception mimics the older version of the template for compatibility. If a citation contains nine author names and one wishes all nine author names to display, "et al." may be suppressed by setting |display-authors=9. Aliases: displayauthors.
  • display-editors: Controls the number of editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of editors, set display-editors to the desired number. For example, |display-editors=2 will display only the first two editors in a citation. By default, all editors are displayed except when there are four editors, then the editor list in the citation is truncated to three editors, followed by "et al." This exception mimics the older version of the template for compatibility. If a citation contains four editor names and one wishes all four editor names to display, "et al." may be suppressed by setting |display-editors=4. Aliases: displayeditors.
  • lastauthoramp: Switches the separator between the last two names of the author list to space ampersand space ( & ) when set to any value. Example: |lastauthoramp=yes
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to none. Ignored if quote is defined.
  • separator: Controls the punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc. Defaults to a comma and space (, ); if the parameter is present, but blank, separator punctuation is set to the default; a space must be encoded as &#32;.

Subscription or registration required[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Citations of online sources that require registration or a subscription are acceptable in Wikipedia as documented in Verifiability – Access to sources. As a courtesy to readers and other editors, editors can signal the access restrictions of the external links included in a citation.

Four access levels can be used:

  • Freely accessible free: the source is free to read for anyone (this applies in particular to articles in open access)
  • Free registration required registration: a free registration is required to access the source
  • Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required limited: there are other constraints (such as a cap on daily views) to freely access this source
  • Paid subscription required subscription: the source is only accessible via a paid subscription

As there are often multiple external links with different access levels in the same citation, these values are attributed to a particular external link.

Access level of |url=[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Links inserted with |url= are expected to be free to read by default. If not, editors can use one of

  • |url-access=subscription
  • |url-access=registration
  • |url-access=limited

to indicate the relevant access restriction.

Access level of identifiers[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Links inserted by identifiers such as |doi= are not expected to offer a free full text by default. If they do, editors can use |doi-access=free (in the case of |doi=) to indicate the relevant access level. The following identifiers are supported:

  • |bibcode= with |bibcode-access=free
  • |doi= with |doi-access=free
  • |hdl= with |hdl-access=free
  • |jstor= with |jstor-access=free
  • |ol= with |ol-access=free
  • |osti= with |osti-access=free

Some identifiers always link to free full texts. In this case, the access level is automatically indicated by the template. This is the case for |arxiv=, |biorxiv=, |citeseerx=, |pmc=, |rfc= and |ssrn=.

Ambiguous access parameters[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

The parameters |registration=yes and |subscription=yes can also be used to indicate the access level of a citation. However, they do not indicate which link they apply to, so editors are encouraged to use |url-access=registration and |url-access=subscription instead, when the restriction applies to |url=. If the restriction applies to an identifier, these parameters should be omitted.

These parameters add a link note to the end of the citation:

  • registration: For online sources that require registration, set |registration=yes (or y, or true); superseded by subscription if both are set.
  • subscription: For online sources that require a subscription, set |subscription=yes (or y, or true); supersedes registration if both are set.

Setting |registration= or |subscription= to any value other than y, yes, or true will generate an error message.

Examples[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Books[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Three authors, a volume, and an edition. Ampersand (&) forced before final author's name.
{{Citation
| last1  = Lincoln
| first1 = A.
| last2  = Washington
| first2 = G.
| last3  = Adams
| first3 = J.
| lastauthoramp = yes
| title     = All the Presidents' Names
| publisher = The Pentagon
| place     = Home Base, New York
| volume  = XII
| edition = 2nd
| year    = 2007
}}
Lincoln, A.; Washington, G. & Adams, J. (2007), All the Presidents' Names, XII (2nd ed.), Home Base, New York: The Pentagon 

Web[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Web page
{{Citation
| url   = http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/
| title = NPS Focus
| work  = National Register of Historic Places
| publisher  = [[National Park Service]]
| accessdate = November 30, 2010
}}
"NPS Focus", National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, retrieved November 30, 2010 
Archived page
{{Citation
| url = http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| title = Earth's Atmosphere
| accessdate = October 25, 2007
| publisher  = [[National Aeronautics and Space Administration]]
| year   = 1995
| author = NASA
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071013232332/http://
liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| archivedate = October 13, 2007
}}
NASA (1995), Earth's Atmosphere, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, archived from the original on October 13, 2007, retrieved October 25, 2007 

Journals, newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Journal article
{{Citation
| last  = Hill
| first = Marvin S.
| title = Joseph Smith and the 1826
Trial: New Evidence and New
Difficulties
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume  = 12
| issue   = 2
| year    = 1976
| pages   = 1–8
| url     = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
}}
Hill, Marvin S. (1976), "Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties" (PDF), BYU Studies, 12 (2): 1–8 
Journal article with multiple authors and identifier
{{Citation
| last1  = Mandelkern
| first1 = M,
| last2  = Elias
| first2 = J,
| last3  = Eden
| first3 = D,
| last4  = Crothers
| first4 = D
| display-authors = 2
| title   = The dimensions of DNA in solution
| journal = J Mol Biol
| volume  = 152
| issue   = 1
| pages   = 153–61
| year    = 1981
| pmid    = 7338906
| doi     = 10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1
}}
Mandelkern, M,; Elias, J,; et al. (1981), "The dimensions of DNA in solution", J Mol Biol, 152 (1): 153–61, doi:10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1, PMID 7338906 
Newspaper article
{{Citation
| last  = Smith
| first = Joseph III
| author-link = Joseph Smith III
| title = Last Testimony of Sister Emma
| newspaper = The Saints' Herald
| publication-place = Plano, IL
| volume = 26
| issue  = 19
| date   = October 1, 1879
| year   = 1879
| page   = 289
| url    = http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/
IL/sain1872.htm#100179
}}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1, 1879), "Last Testimony of Sister Emma", The Saints' Herald, Plano, IL, 26 (19), p. 289 
Conference paper
{{Citation
| last  = Sullivan
| first = D.B.
| contribution = Time and frequency measurement
 at NIST: The first 100 years
| year  = 2001
| title = 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp.
| publisher = National Institute of Standards and Technology
| url       = http://tf.nist.gov/timefreq/general/pdf/1485.pdf
| format    = PDF
}}
Sullivan, D.B. (2001), "Time and frequency measurement at NIST: The first 100 years", 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp. (PDF), National Institute of Standards and Technology 

Parts of books, including encyclopedia articles[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Manuscript published in an edited compilation
{{Citation
| last  = Bidamon
| first = Emma Smith
| author-link = Emma Hale Smith
| chapter = Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim
| date = March 27, 1876
| year = 1876
| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Bidamon, Emma Smith (March 27, 1876), "Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim", in Vogel, Dan, Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books (published 1996), ISBN 1-56085-072-8 
Work with an editor but no author
{{Citation
| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Vogel, Dan, ed. (1996), Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-072-8 
Encyclopedia article by a named author
{{Citation
| last  = Kramer
| first = Martin
| author-link  = Martin Kramer
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last  = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages  = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| place = London
| publication-date = 1999
| contribution-url = http://www.geocities.com/
martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", in Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 
Encyclopedia article with no named author
{{Citation
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| place = London
| year = 1999
| contribution-url = http://www.geocities.com/
martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Boyd, Kelley, ed. (1999), "Bernard Lewis", Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 

Republications, or edited quotations in a periodical article[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Manuscript edited and published in a journal
{{Citation
| last = Knight
| first = Joseph, Sr.
| year = 1833
| editor-last = Jessee
| editor-first = Dean
| title = Joseph Knight's Recollection
of Early Mormon History
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume = 17
| issue = 1
| publication-date = 1976
| page = 35
| url = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
}}
Knight, Joseph, Sr. (1833), Jessee, Dean, ed., "Joseph Knight's Recollection of Early Mormon History" (PDF), BYU Studies (published 1976), 17 (1): 35 
Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
{{Citation
| last = Klingensmith
| first = Philip
| contribution = Affidavit
| year = 1872
| date = September 5, 1872
| place = Lincoln County, Nevada
| title = Mountain Meadows Massacre
| editor-last = Toohy
| editor-first = Dennis J.
| journal = Corinne Daily Reporter
| publication-date = September 24, 1872
| publication-place = Corinne, Utah
| volume = 5
| issue = 252
| page = 1
| contribution-url = http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359
}}
Klingensmith, Philip (September 5, 1872), written at Lincoln County, Nevada, Toohy, Dennis J., ed., "Mountain Meadows Massacre", Corinne Daily Reporter, Corinne, Utah (published September 24, 1872), 5 (252): 1  |contribution= ignored (help)

Press release[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Press release with quotation
{{Citation
| url = http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/04/05ipad.html
| title = Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day
| publisher = Apple Inc
| accessdate = April 10, 2010
| quote = in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3}}
Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day, Apple Inc, retrieved April 10, 2010, in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3 

Citing patents[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Parameters (all are optional)[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

{{Citation
| inventor-last =
| inventor-first =
| inventorlink =
| inventor2-last =
| inventor2-first =
| inventorlink2 =
| publication-date =
| issue-date =
| title =
| country-code =
| description =
| patent-number =
| ref =
}}
  • inventor-last (or inventor1-last): The inventor's surname or last name.
  • inventor-first (or inventor1-first): The inventor's first or given name(s).
  • inventorlink (or inventorlink1): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first inventor.
  • inventor2-last, inventor3-last, inventor4-last: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • inventor2-first, inventor3-first, inventor4-first: The second, third, and fourth inventors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • inventorlink2, inventorlink3, inventorlink4: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth inventor, if applicable.
  • publication-date: Date of publication or filing.
  • issue-date (or date): Date patent was issued by patent agency.
  • title: Title of the patent. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "&#91;" for "[" and "&#93;" for "]"
  • country-code: Two-letter abbreviation of the country issuing the patent.
  • description: Type of patent; shown between country code and number.
  • patent-number: The number of the patent.
  • ref: Anchor id.

Examples[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

United States patent with multiple inventors
{{Citation
| inventor1-last = Degermark
| inventor1-first = Mikael
| inventor2-last = Brodnik
| inventor2-first = Andrej
| inventor3-last = Carlsson
| inventor3-first = Svante
| inventor4-last = Pink
| inventor4-first = Stephen
| title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
| issue-date = 2001
| patent-number = 6266706
| country-code = US}}
US 6266706, Degermark, Mikael; Andrej Brodnik & Svante Carlsson et al., "Fast routing lookup system using complete prefix tree, bit vector, and pointers in a routing table for determining where to route IP datagrams", issued 2001 

Anchored citations[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

This template can generate a citation that can be combined with shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing. It does this by creating an HTML anchor containing an ID. The special parameter |ref=harv generates an ID suitable for Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} as specified in the next section; this is the default for the {{citation}} template. To disable anchor generation, specify |ref=none – leaving |ref= empty has the same effect but is ambiguous; this is the default for the Cite templates such as {{cite book}} and {{cite news}}. You can also specify the ID directly, using the |ref=ID parameter. For example, suppose an article's References section contains the markup:

  • {{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=Civilization and Its Discontents |year=1930 |ref=CivDis}}

which generates the citation:

  • Sigmund Freud (1930), Civilization and Its Discontents 

Then, the markup "([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])" generates a parenthetical reference "(Freud 1930)" containing a wikilink to the citation (try clicking on the wikilink).

Anchors for Harvard referencing templates[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

IDs compatible with Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} are computed from the last names of the authors and the year of the cited source. For example, the markup "{{harv|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}" generates the Harvard reference "(Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix)", which wikilinks to the citation whose markup and appearance are shown below:

  • {{Citation |last1=Wright |first1=Thomas |last2=Evans |first2=R. H. |title=Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray |location=London |publisher=Henry G. Bohn |year=1851 |oclc=59510372}}
  • Wright, Thomas; Evans, R. H. (1851), Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray, London: Henry G. Bohn, OCLC 59510372 

In this example the {{citation}} template defines, and the {{harv}} template uses, the HTML ID "CITEREFWrightEvans1851", composed by concatenating the string "CITEREF" with the last names of the authors and the year. The {{harvid}} template can be used to generate such IDs, for example, {{harvid|Wright|Evans|1851}} generates "CITEREFWrightEvans1851".

Related methods which leave only a number in the text are to use the {{harvnb}} template enclosed in the <ref></ref> html code, or to use the {{sfn}} template alone. The example above would be <ref>{{harvnb|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}</ref> or {{sfn|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}} both of which generate a footnote, such as

17. Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix

The names of only the first four authors are used; other author names are not concatenated to the ID. If no author names are given, editor names are used instead. For patents, inventor names are used instead of authors or editors. If these names are not given, this template does not generate an anchor.

Last names are used, as specified by the parameters |last1= (or |last=), |last2=, |last3=, and |last4=, and similarly for |editor1-last= etc. and for |inventor1-last= etc. If a full name is given but no last name is specified, this template falls back on the full name, but this usage is not recommended. For example, in "{{Citation | author = Sigmund Freud | title = The Ego and the Id | year = 1923}}" no last name is given, so this citation cannot be combined with the Harvard reference "{{harv|Freud|1923}}". To make these {{citation}} and {{harv}} invocations compatible, either replace "|author=Sigmund Freud" with "|first=Sigmund |last=Freud", or add "|ref={{harvid|Freud|1923}}" to the {{citation}} invocation, or add the same ref parameter (say, "|ref=EgoId") to both the {{citation}} and the {{harv}} invocations.

Similarly, the year is used, as specified by |year=. If no year is given, this template attempts to derive the year from |date= (or, if no date is given, from |publication-date=) by applying the MediaWiki#time function. This heuristic works with many common date formats (American, International and ISO 8601 standard format YYYY-MM-DD as listed in WP:MOS), but may not work as expected with other formats, so when in doubt it may be safer to use |year=. Note that if only a year, say 2005, is known you must use |year=2005 rather than |date=2005.

IDs must be unique[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Names, years, and hand-specified IDs must be chosen so that the IDs are unique within a page; otherwise the HTML will not conform to the W3C standards, and any references to the citations will not work reliably. For example, suppose a page contains the following two citations with {{harv}}-compatible IDs:

If these citations were altered to say "2008" rather than "2008a" and "2008b", the resulting page would not work, because the two different citations would both attempt to use the ID "CITEREFMontesHalterman2008". To avoid this problem, distinguish the citations by appending suffixes to the years, e.g., "|year=2008a" and "|year=2008b", as was done above. Any Harvard references to these citations should use years with the same suffixes.

It is good practice to verify that a page does not contain duplicate IDs by using the W3C Markup Validation Service; see External links.

Dates[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  1. The format of dates in the references of an article should use consistent and unambiguous styles. Example formats used in Wikipedia citations include: It is common to use ISO 8601 format for archivedates and accessdates even where another date format is used for publication dates. This can aid readability by visually differentiating dates directly connected with the original publication from those with a purely administrative function relevant only within Wikipedia. Dates should not be linked in references. Please see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (dates and numbers)#Dates for more guidance about formatting dates.

Tools[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

See Wikipedia:Citing sources#Citation templates and tools for a list of tools that can help create a reference in the "citation" format.

Template Data[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

This is the TemplateData documentation for this template used by VisualEditor and other tools; see the monthly error report for this template.

TemplateData for Citation

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

Template parameters

ಪರಿಮಿತಿವಿವರನಮೂನೆಸ್ಥಾನಮಾನ
author surnamelast

surname of the author of the cited material

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author given namefirst

given name (first name) of the author of the cited material

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
title of sourcetitle

Title of source; displays in italics.

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
date of sourcedate

Full date of source being referenced in the same format as other publication dates in the citations.[1] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
url of sourceurl

URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found.

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
11

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
22

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
33

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor-surnameinventor-surname

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor1-surnameinventor1-surname

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor-lastinventor-last

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor1-lastinventor1-last

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventorinventor

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
invent1invent1

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
invent-1invent-1

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
country-codecountry-code

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor2-surnameinventor2-surname

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor2-lastinventor2-last

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor2inventor2

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
invent2invent2

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor3-surnameinventor3-surname

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor3-lastinventor3-last

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor3inventor3

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
invent3invent3

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor4-surnameinventor4-surname

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor4-lastinventor4-last

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor4inventor4

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
invent4invent4

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor-giveninventor-given

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor1-giveninventor1-given

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor-firstinventor-first

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor1-firstinventor1-first

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor2-giveninventor2-given

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor2-firstinventor2-first

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor3-giveninventor3-given

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor3-firstinventor3-first

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor4-giveninventor4-given

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventor4-firstinventor4-first

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventorlink1inventorlink1

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventorlinkinventorlink

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventorlink2inventorlink2

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventorlink3inventorlink3

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inventorlink4inventorlink4

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
countrycountry

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
publication-numberpublication-number

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
patent-numberpatent-number

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
numbernumber

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
descriptiondescription

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
statusstatus

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
publication-datepublication-date

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
pubdatepubdate

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
issue-dateissue-date

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
gdategdate

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
yearyear

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
fdatefdate

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
pridatepridate

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
assign1assign1

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
assign2assign2

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
refref

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
separatorseparator

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
quotequote

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
postscriptpostscript

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author-separatorauthor-separator

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author-maskauthor-mask

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
authormaskauthormask

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
surnamesurname

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
last1last1

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
surname1surname1

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author1author1

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
authorauthor

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
authorsauthors

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
last2last2

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
surname2surname2

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author2author2

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
last3last3

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
surname3surname3

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author3author3

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
last4last4

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
surname4surname4

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author4author4

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
last5last5

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
surname5surname5

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author5author5

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
last6last6

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
surname6surname6

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author6author6

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
last7last7

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
surname7surname7

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author7author7

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
last8last8

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
surname8surname8

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author8author8

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
last9last9

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
surname9surname9

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author9author9

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
first1first1

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
given1given1

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
givengiven

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
first2first2

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
given2given2

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
first3first3

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
given3given3

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
first4first4

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
given4given4

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
first5first5

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
given5given5

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
first6first6

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
given6given6

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
first7first7

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
given7given7

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
first8first8

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
given8given8

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
first9first9

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
given9given9

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author-linkauthor-link

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author1-linkauthor1-link

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
authorlinkauthorlink

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
authorlink1authorlink1

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author2-linkauthor2-link

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
authorlink2authorlink2

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author3-linkauthor3-link

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
authorlink3authorlink3

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author4-linkauthor4-link

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
authorlink4authorlink4

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author5-linkauthor5-link

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
authorlink5authorlink5

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author6-linkauthor6-link

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
authorlink6authorlink6

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author7-linkauthor7-link

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
authorlink7authorlink7

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author8-linkauthor8-link

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
authorlink8authorlink8

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author9-linkauthor9-link

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
authorlink9authorlink9

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
coauthorcoauthor

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
coauthorscoauthors

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
origyearorigyear

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
monthmonth

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
trans_chaptertrans_chapter

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
trans_titletrans_title

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
typetype

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
archiveurlarchiveurl

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
deadurldeadurl

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
seriesseries

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
versionversion

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
journaljournal

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
periodicalperiodical

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
newspapernewspaper

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
magazinemagazine

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
workwork

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
volumevolume

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
issueissue

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
pagespages

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
pagepage

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
atat

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
noppnopp

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
chapterchapter

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
contributioncontribution

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
chapter-urlchapter-url

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
chapterurlchapterurl

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
contribution-urlcontribution-url

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
othersothers

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editionedition

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
placeplace

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
locationlocation

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
publication-placepublication-place

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
publisherpublisher

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor-lasteditor-last

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor-surnameeditor-surname

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor1-lasteditor1-last

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor1-surnameeditor1-surname

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor1editor1

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editoreditor

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editorseditors

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor2-lasteditor2-last

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor2-surnameeditor2-surname

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor2editor2

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor3-lasteditor3-last

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor3-surnameeditor3-surname

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor3editor3

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor4-lasteditor4-last

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor4-surnameeditor4-surname

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor4editor4

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor-firsteditor-first

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor-giveneditor-given

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor1-firsteditor1-first

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor1-giveneditor1-given

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor2-firsteditor2-first

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor2-giveneditor2-given

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor3-firsteditor3-first

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor3-giveneditor3-given

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor4-firsteditor4-first

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor4-giveneditor4-given

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor-linkeditor-link

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor1-linkeditor1-link

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor2-linkeditor2-link

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor3-linkeditor3-link

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
editor4-linkeditor4-link

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
languagelanguage

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
inin

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
formatformat

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
arxivarxiv

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
asinasin

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
ASINASIN

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
asin-tldasin-tld

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
bibcodebibcode

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
doidoi

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
DOIDOI

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
doi_inactivedatedoi_inactivedate

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
doi_brokendatedoi_brokendate

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
isbnisbn

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
ISBNISBN

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
issnissn

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
ISSNISSN

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
jfmjfm

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
JFMJFM

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
jstorjstor

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
JSTORJSTOR

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
lccnlccn

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
LCCNLCCN

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
mrmr

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
MRMR

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
oclcoclc

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
OCLCOCLC

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
olol

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
OLOL

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
ostiosti

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
OSTIOSTI

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
pmcpmc

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
PMCPMC

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
pmidpmid

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
PMIDPMID

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
rfcrfc

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
RFCRFC

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
ssrnssrn

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
SSRNSSRN

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
zblzbl

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
idid

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
IDID

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
access-dateaccess-date

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
accessdateaccessdate

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
laysummarylaysummary

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
laysourcelaysource

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
laydatelaydate

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
author-name-separatorauthor-name-separator

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
lastauthoramplastauthoramp

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
display-authorsdisplay-authors

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ
archivedatearchivedate

Stringಐಚ್ಛಿಕ

This template produces COinS metadata; see COinS in Wikipedia for background information.