ಭಾರತೀಯ ರೈಲ್ವೆ

ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ ಇಂದ
ಇಲ್ಲಿಗೆ ಹೋಗು: ಸಂಚರಣೆ, ಹುಡುಕು
Mumbai suburban railway emu 5.JPG

ಭಾರತೀಯ ರೈಲ್ವೆ ಭಾರತ ಸರ್ಕಾರದ, ರೈಲ್ವೇ ಖಾತೆಯ ಅಧೀನದ, ಒಂದು ಇಲಾಖೆ. ಭಾರತ ಉದ್ದಗಲಕ್ಕೂ ಹರಡಿದ ರೈಲು ಮಾರ್ಗಗಳ ನಿರ್ವಹಣೆಯ ಜವಾಬ್ದಾರಿ ಈ ಇಲಾಖೆಯದಾಗಿದೆ. ರೈಲ್ವೇ ಖಾತೆಯ ಮುಖ್ಯಸ್ಥರು ಕ್ಯಾಬಿನೆಟ್ ದರ್ಜೆಯ ಮಂತ್ರಿಯಾಗಿದ್ರೆ, ರೈಲ್ವೇ ಇಲಾಖೆಯ ಆಡಳಿತ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆ ರೈಲ್ವೇ ಮಂಡಳಿಯ ಅಧೀನದಲ್ಲಿದೆ.

ಭಾರತದ ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣ ರೈಲು ಸಾಗಾಟದ ಏಕಸ್ವಾಮ್ಯ ಭಾರತೀಯ ರೈಲ್ವೆಯ ಕೈಯಲ್ಲಿದೆ. ಪ್ರತಿ ದಿನ ಸುಮಾರು ಒಂದು ಕೋಟಿ ನಲವತ್ತು ಲಕ್ಷ ಪ್ರಯಾಣಿಕರನ್ನೂ, ಒಂದು ಕೋಟಿ ಟನ್ನಿಗೂ ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಸರಕನ್ನೂ , ಸಾಗಾಟ ಮಾಡುವ ಭಾರತೀಯ ರೈಲ್ವೆಯು ಪ್ಪರಂಚದಲ್ಲಿಯೇ ಅತಿ ದೊಡ್ಡ ಹಾಗೂ ಅತಿ ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಯ ರೈಲು ಜಾಲಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದಾಗಿದೆ[1]. ಭಾರತೀಯರೈಲ್ವೇಯಲ್ಲಿ ೧೬ ಲಕ್ಷ ಜನ ನೌಕರರಿದ್ದು, ಇದು ಪ್ರಪಂಚದಲ್ಲಿಯೇ ಯಾವುದೇ ವಾಣಿಜ್ಯ ಅಥವಾ ಸಾರ್ವಜನಿಕರ ಬಳಕೆಯ ಸೇವಾ ಕ್ಷೇತ್ರದಲ್ಲಿ ಅತಿ ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಎಂದು ಪರಿಗಣಿತವಾಗಿದೆ. ಒಂದೇ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಇದಕ್ಕಿಂತ ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಜನರಿರುವುದು ಚೀನಾದ ಸೇನೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಮಾತ್ರಾ ಎಂದೂ ಹೇಳಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಭಾರತೀಯ ರೈಲ್ವೆಯು ಭಾರತದಾದ್ಯಂತ ೬೩,೧೪೦ ಕಿ. ಮೀಗಳಷ್ಟು ಉದ್ದಕ್ಕೆ ಚಾಚಿಕೊಂಡಿದೆ.

ಪ್ರತಿ ದಿನ ೮,೭೦೨ ಪ್ರಯಾಣಿಕ ರೈಲುಗಳನ್ನು ಸೇರಿದಂತೆ, ಒಟ್ಟು , ೧೪,೪೪೪ ರೈಲುಗಳು ಓಡುತ್ತವೆ (೨೦೦೨ರ ಅಂಕಿ ಅಂಶ)

ಭಾರತದಲ್ಲಿ ಮೊದಲಬಾರಿಗೆ ರೈಲ್ವೇ ಪದ್ಧತಿಯ ಸ್ಥಾಪನೆಯಾದದ್ದು ೧೮೫೩ರಲ್ಲಿ. ಭಾರತಕ್ಕೆ ೧೯೪೭ರಲ್ಲಿ ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ಬರುವ ವೇಳೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ೪೨ ರೈಲ್ವೇಗಳು ಅಸ್ತಿತ್ವದಲ್ಲಿದ್ದವು. ೧೯೫೧ರಲ್ಲಿ ಇವೆಲ್ಲವನ್ನೂ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಕರಿಸಿ ಒಂದುಗೂಡಿಸಲಾಯಿತು. ಈ ಮೂಲಕ ಭಾರತೀಯ ರೈಲ್ವೆಯು ಜಗತ್ತಿನಲ್ಲಿಯೇ ಅತಿದೊಡ್ದ ರೈಲ್ವೇಜಾಲಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದಾಯಿತು.

ಇತಿಹಾಸ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

ಭಾರತೀಯ ರೈಲ್ವೇ - ಒಂದು ಹಳೆಯ ಚಿತ್ರ

ಭಾರತದಲ್ಲಿ ರೈಲ್ವೇ ಮಾರ್ಗಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ೧೮೩೨ರಲ್ಲಿ ಮೊಟ್ಟಮೊದಲ ಬಾರಿ ಯೋಜನೆ ಹಾಕಿದರೂ, ಮುಂದಿನ ಹತ್ತು ವರ್ಷ ಅದು ನೆನೆಗುದಿಯಲ್ಲಿಯೇ ಉಳಿಯಿತು. ೧೮೪೪ರಲ್ಲಿ ಅಂದಿನ ಗವರ್ನರ್ ಜನರಲ್ ಲಾರ್ಡ್ ಹಾರ್ಡಿಂಜ್ ಖಾಸಗೀ ಉದ್ಯಮಿಗಳು ರೈಲ್ವೇ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆಯನ್ನು ಪ್ರಾರಂಭಿಸಲು ಅನುಮತಿ ನೀಡಿದನು. Two new railway companies were created and the East India Company was asked to assist them. Interest from investors in the UK led to the rapid creation of a rail system over the next few years. The first train in India became operational on 1851-12-22, and was used for the hauling of construction material in Roorkee. A year and a half later, on 1853-04-16, the first passenger train service was inaugurated between Bori Bunder, Bombay and Thana. Covering a distance of 34 km (21 miles), it was hauled by three locomotives, Sahib, Sindh and Sultan. This was the formal birth of railways in India.

The British government encouraged new railway companies backed by private investors under a scheme that would guarantee an annual return of five percent during the initial years of operation. Once established, the company would be transferred to the government, with the original company retaining operational control. The route mileage of this network was about 14,500 km (9,000 miles) by 1880, mostly radiating inward from the three major port cities of Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. By 1895, India had started building its own locomotives, and in 1896 sent engineers and locomotives to help build the Uganda Railway.

Soon various independent kingdoms built their own rail systems and the network spread to the regions that became the modern-day states of Assam, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh. A Railway Board was constituted in 1901, but decision-making power was retained by the Viceroy, Lord Curzon. The Railway Board operated under aegis of the Department of Commerce and Industry and had three members: a government railway official serving as chairman, a railway manager from England and an agent of one of the company railways. For the first time in its history, the Railways began to make a tidy profit. In 1907, almost all the rail companies were taken over by the government.

The following year, the first electric locomotive appeared. With the arrival of the First World War, the railways were used to meet the needs of the British outside India. By the end of the First World War, the railways had suffered immensely and were in a poor state. The government took over the management of the Railways and removed the link between the financing of the Railways and other governmental revenues in 1920, a practice that continues to date with a separate railway budget.

The Second World War severely crippled the railways as trains were diverted to the Middle East, and the railway workshops were converted into munitions workshops. At the time of independence in 1947, a large portion of the railways went to the then newly formed Pakistan. A total of forty-two separate railway systems, including thirty-two lines owned by the former Indian princely states, were amalgamated as a single unit which was christened as the Indian Railways.

The existing rail networks were abandoned in favour of zones in 1951 and a total of six zones came into being in 1952. As the economy of India improved, almost all railway production units were indigenised. By 1985, steam locomotives were phased out in favour of diesel and electric locomotives. The entire railway reservation system was streamlined with computerisation in 1995.

ರೈಲ್ವೇ ವಲಯಗಳು[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

ಆಡಳಿತಾತ್ಮಕ ದೃಷ್ಟಿಯಿಂದ ಭಾರತೀಯ ರೈಲ್ವೇಯನ್ನು ಹದಿನಾರು ವಲಯಗಳನ್ನಾಗಿ ವಿಂಗಡಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ.

ಕ್ರಮಾಂಕ. ಹೆಸರು ಕಿರುನಾಮ ಮುಖ್ಯಕಛೇರಿ ಸ್ಥಾಪನೆ

೧. ಉತ್ತರ ರೈಲ್ವೇ NR ದೆಹಲಿ ಏಪ್ರಿಲ್ ೧೪, ೧೯೫೨

೨. ಈಶಾನ್ಯ ರೈಲ್ವೇ NER ಗೋರಖ್ ಪುರ ೧೯೫೨

೩. ಈಶಾನ್ಯ ಗಡಿ ರೈಲ್ವೇ NFR ಮಾಲಿಗಾವ್ (ಗುವಾಹಾಟಿ) ೧೯೫೮

೪. ಪೂರ್ವ ರೈಲ್ವೇ ER ಕೊಲ್ಕತ್ತಾ ಏಪ್ರಿಲ್ ೧೯೫೨

೫. ಆಗ್ನೇಯ ರೈಲ್ವೇ SER ಕೊಲ್ಕತ್ತಾ ೧೯೫೫

೬. ದಕ್ಕ್ಷಿಣ ಮಧ್ಯ ರೈಲ್ವೇ SCR ಸಿಕಂದರಾಬಾದ್ ಅಕ್ಟೋಬರ್ ೨, ೧೯೬೬

೭. ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ರೈಲ್ವೇ SR ಚೆನ್ನೈ ಏಪ್ರಿಲ್ ೧೪,೧೯೫೧

೮. ಮಧ್ಯ ರೈಲ್ವೇ CR ಮುಂಬಯಿ ನವೆಂಬರ್ ೫,೧೯೫೧

೯. ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ರೈಲ್ವೇ WR ಮುಂಬಯಿ ನವೆಂಬರ್ ೫,೧೯೫೧

೧೦. ನೈರುತ್ಯ ರೈಲ್ವೇ SWR ಹುಬ್ಬಳ್ಳಿ ಏಪ್ರಿಲ್ ೧, ೨೦೦೩

೧೧. ವಾಯವ್ಯ ರೈಲ್ವೇ NWR ಜಯಪುರ ಅಕ್ಟೋಬರ್ ೧, ೨೦೦೨

೧೨. ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಮಧ್ಯ ರೈಲ್ವೇ WCR ಜಬ್ಬಲ್ ಪುರ ಏಪ್ರಿಲ್ ೧, ೨೦೦೩

೧೩.. ಉತ್ತರ ಮಧ್ಯ ರೈಲ್ವೇ NCR ಅಲಹಾಬಾದ್ ಏಪ್ರಿಲ್ ೧, ೨೦೦೩

೧೪. ಆಗ್ನೇಯ ಮಧ್ಯ ರೈಲ್ವೇ SECR ಬಿಲಾಸ್ ಪುರ ಏಪ್ರಿಲ್ ೧, ೨೦೦೩

೧೫. ಪೂರ್ವ ಕರಾವಳಿ ರೈಲ್ವೇ ECoR ಭುವನೇಶ್ವರ ಏಪ್ರಿಲ್ ೧, ೨೦೦೩

೧೬. ಪೂರ್ವ ಮಧ್ಯ ರೈಲ್ವೇ ECR ಹಾಜಿಪುರ ಅಕ್ಟೋಬರ್ ೧, ೨೦೦೨

೧೭. ಕೊಂಕಣ ರೈಲ್ವೇ KR ನವಿ ಮುಂಬಯಿ ಜನವರಿ ೨೬, ೧೯೯೮


†Konkan Railway (KR) is constituted as a separately incorporated railway, with its headquarters at Belapur CBD (Navi Mumbai). It comes under the control of the Railway Ministry and the Railway Board.

The Calcutta Metro is owned and operated by Indian Railways, but is not a part of any of the zones. It is administratively considered to have the status of a zonal railway. Each zonal railway is made up of a certain number of divisions, each having a divisional headquarters. There are a total of sixty-seven divisions.

Zonal Railway Divisions Northern Railway Delhi, Ambala, Firozpur, Lucknow, Moradabad North Eastern Railway Izzatnagar, Lucknow, Varanasi Northeast Frontier Railway Alipurduar, Katihar, Lumding, Rangia, Tinsukia Eastern Railway Howrah, Sealdah, Asansol, Malda South Eastern Railway Adra, Chakradharpur, Kharagpur, Ranchi South Central Railway Secunderabad, Hyderabad, Guntakal, Guntur, Nanded, Vijayawada Southern Railway Chennai, Madurai, Palghat, Tiruchchirapalli, Trivandrum, Salem Central Railway Mumbai, Bhusawal, Pune, Solapur, Nagpur Western Railway Mumbai Central, Baroda, Ratlam, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Bhavnagar South Western Railway Hubli, Bangalore, Mysore North Western Railway Jaipur, Ajmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur West Central Railway Jabalpur, Bhopal, Kota North Central Railway Allahabad, Agra, Jhansi South East Central Railway Bilaspur, Raipur, Nagpur East Coast Railway Khurda Road, Sambalpur, Visakhapatnam East Central Railway Danapur, Dhanbad, Mughalsarai, Samastipur, Sonpur

ಪ್ರಯಾಣಿಕರ ಸೇವೆಗಳು[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

ಭಾರತೀಯ ರೈಲ್ವೆಯು ಪ್ರಯಾಣಿಕರಿಗಾಗಿ ಪ್ರತಿದಿನ 8,072 ರೈಲುಗಳನ್ನು ಓಡಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದು, ಭಾರತದ ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತೈದು ರಾಜ್ಯಗಳು ಹಾಗೂ ಮೂರು ಕೇಂದ್ರಾಡಳಿತ ಪ್ರದೇಶಗಳ ವ್ಯಾಪ್ತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸುಮಾರು ಐನೂರು ಕೋಟಿಗೂ ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಪ್ರಯಾಣಿಕರನ್ನು ಪ್ರತಿವರ್ಷ ಸಾಗಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ಭಾರತೀಯ ರೈಲ್ವೆ ಜಾಲವು ಸಿಕ್ಕಿಮ್ , ಅರುಣಾಚಲ ಪ್ರದೇಶ ಮತ್ತು ಮೇಘಾಲಯ ರಾಜ್ಯಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಇಲ್ಲಿಯವರೆಗೂ ಪ್ರವೇಶ ಮಾಡಿಲ್ಲ.ರೈಲು ಭಾರತದ ಜನತೆಯ ಜನಪ್ರಿಯ ಪ್ರವಾಸ ಮಾಧ್ಯಮವಾಗಿದೆ.

ಸಾಧಾರಣ ರೈಲಿನಲ್ಲಿ 18 ಕೋಚುಗಳಿದ್ದರೂ, ಕೆಲವೊಂದು ಜನಪ್ರಿಯ ರೈಲುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ 24ರವರೆಗೂ ಕೋಚುಗಳು ಇರುವುದುಂಟು. ಪ್ರತಿಯೊಂದು ಕೋಚು 18ರಿಂದ 72 ಪ್ರಯಾಣಿಕರಿಗಾಗಿ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸ ಮಾಡಿದ್ದರೂ , ಶಾಲಾ ರಜಾ ದಿನಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಿರುಸಿನ ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳ ಮಾರ್ಗಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಜನದಟ್ಟಣೆಯು ಇದರ ಅನೇಕ ಪಟ್ಟು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿರುವುದನ್ನು ಕಾಣಬಹುದು. The coaches in use are vestibules, but some of these may be dummied on some trains for operational reasons. Freight trains use a large variety of wagons.

Each coach has different accommodation class; the most popular being the sleeper class. Up to nine of these type coaches are usually coupled. Air conditioned coaches are also attached, and a standard train may have between three and five air-conditioned coaches. Online passenger ticketing, introduced in 2004, is expected to top 100,000 per day by 2009, while ATMs in many stations will be equipped to dispense long-distance tickets by the end of 2007.

Production Services[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

A WAP5 locomotiveThe Indian Railways manufactures a lot of its rolling stock and heavy engineering components. This is largely due to historical reasons. As with most developing economies, the main reason is import substitution of expensive technology related products. This was relevant when the general state of the national engineering industry was immature.

Production Units, the manufacturing plants of the Indian Railways, are managed directly by the ministry. The General Managers of the PUs report to the Railway Board. The Production Units are:

Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi Chittaranjan Locomotive Works, Chittaranjan Diesel-Loco Modernisation Works, Patiala Integral Coach Factory, Chennai Rail Coach Factory, Kapurthala Rail Wheel Factory, Bangalore Rail Spring Karkhana, Gwalior ದಕಸಕೆಇಒಸನಕಸಕದಕಡೆದಕಸೆಕದನದದ ದ್ಮಕಸದ್ದಜಕಲ'

ಸದ್ಸ ಡೆಡೆ್

ಲೋಕಲ್ ರೈಲುಗಳು[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

ನಾಗರೀಕರ ಸೌಲಭ್ಯಕ್ಕಾಗಿ, ಅನೇಕ ನಗರಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಲೋಕಲ್ ರೈಲುಗಳ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆಯನ್ನು ಮಾಡಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಮುಂಬಯಿ, ಚೆನ್ನೈ,ಕೊಲ್ಕತ್ತಾ,ಹೈದರಾಬಾದು,ಪುಣೆ ನಗರಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಈ ರೈಲುಗಳನ್ನು ನೋಡಬಹುದು. ಇದೇ ಉದ್ದೇಶದಿಂದ , ನವದೆಹಲಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಮೆಟ್ರೋ ರೈಲು ಪದ್ಧತಿಯನ್ನು 1990ರ ದಶಕದಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರಾರಂಭಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಹೈದರಾಬಾದು ಮತ್ತು ಪುಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸ್ವತಂತ್ರ ಲೋಕಲ್ ಹಳಿಗಳು ಇಲ್ಲದಿದ್ದರೂ ಲೋಕಲುಗಳು ದೂರ ರೈಲುಗಳ ಹಳಿಯನ್ನೇ ಉಪಯೋಗಿಸುತ್ತವೆ. ನವ ದೆಹಲಿ, ಚೆನ್ನೈ ಮತ್ತು ಕೊಲ್ಕತ್ತಾ ನಗರಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಮೆಟ್ರೋ ರೈಲು ಸೌಲಭ್ಯ ಇದೆ.

ಲೋಕಲ್ ರೈಲಿನ ಎಂಜಿನ್ ವಿದ್ಯುಚ್ಛಕ್ತಿಯ ಬಲದಿಂದ ನಡೆಯುತ್ತದೆ. ಒಂದೊಂದು ಎಂಜಿನ್ನಿಗೆ ಒಂಭತ್ತು ಅಥವಾ ಹನ್ನೆರಡು ಕೋಚುಗಳನ್ನು ಜೋಡಿಸಲಾಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ. They usually have nine coaches or sometimes twelve to handle rush hour traffic (Chennai MRTS has three or six coach formation, Hyderabad MMTS; abbreviation for Multi Modal Transport System has mostly six coach train with a single nine coach one). One unit of an EMU train consists of one power car and two general coaches. Thus a nine coach EMU is made up of three units having one power car at each end and one at the middle. The rakes in Mumbai run on direct current, while those elsewhere use alternating current ([5]). A standard coach is designed to accommodate 96 seated passengers, but the actual number of passengers can easily double or triple with standees during rush hour. The Kolkata metro has the administrative status of a zonal railway, though it does not come under the seventeen railway zones.

The Suburban trains in Mumbai handle more rush then any other suburban network in India. The network has three lines viz, western, central and harbour. It's considered to be the lifeline on Mumbai. On 11 July 2006 six bombs were set off on these trains, targeted at the general public.

ಸರಕು ಸಾಗಣೆ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

ಖನಿಜಗಳು, ಗೊಬ್ಬರ, ರಾಸಾಯನಿಕಗಳು, ತೈಲೋತ್ಪನ್ನಗಳು, ಕೃಷಿ ಉತ್ಪನ್ನಗಳು, ಕಬ್ಬಿಣ ಮತ್ತು ಉಕ್ಕು ಇವೇ ಮೊದಲಾದ ತರಹಾವಿ ಸರಕುಗಳನ್ನು ಭಾರತೀಯ ರೈಲು ಸಾಗಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ಬಂದರುಗಳು ಹಾಗೂ ದೊಡ್ಡ ನಗರಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸರಕು ಸಾಗಾಣಿಕೆಗಾಗಿಯೇ ರೈಲುಹಳಿ, ಯಾರ್ಡು ಇತ್ಯಾದಿ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆಯನ್ನು ಮಾಡಲಾಗಿದೆ.

Indian Railways makes 70% of its revenues and most of its profits from the freight sector, and uses these profits to cross-subsidise the loss-making passenger sector. However, competition from trucks which offer cheaper rates has seen a decrease in freight traffic in recent years. Since the 1990s, Indian Railways has switched from small consignments to larger container movement which has helped speed up its operations. Most of its freight earnings come from such rakes carrying bulk goods such as coal, cement, food grains and iron ore.

Indian Railways also transports vehicles over long distances. Trucks that carry goods to a particular location are hauled back by trains saving the trucking company on unnecessary fuel expenses. Refrigerated vans are also available in many areas. The "Green Van" is a special type used to transport fresh food and vegetables. Recently Indian Railways introduced the special 'Container Rajdhani' or CONRAJ, for high priority freight. The highest speed notched up for a freight train is 100 km/h (62 mph) for a 4,700 metric tonne load.

Recent changes have sought to boost the earnings from freight. A privatization scheme was introduced recently to improve the performance of freight trains. Companies are being allowed to run their own container trains. The first length of an 11,000km freight corridor linking India's biggest cities has recently been approved. The railways has increased load limits for the system's 220,000 freight wagons by 11%, legalizing something that was already happening. Due to increase in manufacturing transport in India that was augmented by the increase in fuel cost, transportation by rail became advantageous financially. New measures such as speeding up the turnaround times have added some 24% to freight revenues.

ಹೆಸರಾಂತ ರೈಲುಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಸಾಧನೆಗಳು[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

ಡಾರ್ಜಿಲಿಂಗ್ ಗಿರಿಧಾಮದಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾಣಸಿಗುವ ,ಡಾರ್ಜಿಲಿಂಗ್ ಹಿಮಾಲಯನ್ ರೈಲ್ವೆ ನಡೆಸುವ , ನ್ಯಾರೋ ಗೇಜಿನ ರೈಲು ಯುನೆಸ್ಕೋದಿಂದ ವಿಶ್ವ ಪರಂಪರಾ ತಾಣ ಎಂದು ಮಾನ್ಯತೆ ಗಳಿಸಿದೆ. ಕೆಲವು ಡೀಸಲ್ ಎಂಜಿನ್ನುಗಳೂ ಉಪಯೋಗದಲ್ಲಿದ್ದರೂ, ಉಗಿ ಬಂಡಿ ಇನ್ನೂ ಬಳಸುತ್ತಿರುವ ಭಾರತದ ಅಪರೂಪದ ರೈಲುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಇದೂ ಒಂದು. ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಬಂಗಾಳದ ನ್ಯೂ ಜಲಪೈಗುರಿ ಯಿಂದ ಹೊರಡುವ ಈ ರೈಲು , ಟೀ ಎಸ್ಟೇಟುಗಳು ಸೇರಿದಂತೆ, ಅನೇಕ ರಮಣೀಯ ತಾಣಗಳನ್ನು ಹಾದು, ಸಮುದ್ರ ಮಟ್ಟದಿಂದ 2,134 ಮೀಟರ್ (7,000 ಅಡಿ) ಎತ್ತರದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಡಾರ್ಜಿಲಿಂಗ್ ಗಿರಿಧಾಮದಲ್ಲಿ ಕೊನೆಗೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತದೆ. ಈ ದಾರಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಅತಿ ಎತ್ತರದ ಸ್ಟೇಷನ್ ಎಂದರೆ ಘೂಮ್. ಹಾಗೆಯೇ, ದಕ್ಷಿಣದ ನೀಲಗಿರಿ ಮೌಂಟನ್ ರೈಲ್ವೆ ಕೂಡಾ ಯುನೆಸ್ಕೋದಿಂದ ವಿಶ್ವ ಪರಂಪರಾ ತಾಣ ಎಂದು ಮಾನ್ಯತೆ ಗಳಿಸಿದೆ. [3] It is also the only rack railway in India. ಮುಂಬಯಿಯ ಛತ್ರಪತಿ ಶಿವಾಜಿ ರೈಲು ನಿಲ್ದಾಣ ( ಹಿಂದಿನ ವಿಕ್ಟೋರಿಯಾ ಟರ್ಮಿನಸ್) ಭಾರತೀಯ ರೈಲ್ವೆಯ ಅಧೀನದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಇನ್ನೊಂದು ವಿಶ್ವ ಪರಂಪರಾ ತಾಣ .

The Palace on Wheels is a specially designed train, frequently hauled by a steam locomotive, for promoting tourism in Rajasthan. The Maharashtra government did try to introduce the Deccan Odyssey along the Konkan route, but it did not enjoy the same success as the Palace on Wheels. The Samjhauta Express was a train that ran between India and Pakistan. However, hostilities between the two nations in 2001 saw the line being closed. It was reopened when the hostilities subsided in 2004. Another train connecting Khokhrapar (Pakistan) and Munabao (India) is the Thar Express that restarted operations on February 18, 2006; it was closed down after the 1965 Indo-Pak war. The Kalka Shimla Railway till recently featured in the Guinness Book of World Records for offering the steepest rise in altitude in the space of 96 kilometres.[4]

The Lifeline Express is a special train popularly known as the "Hospital-on-Wheels" which provides healthcare to the rural areas. This train has a carriage that serves as an operating room, a second one which serves as a storeroom and an additional two that serve as a patient ward. The train travels around the country, staying at a location for about two months before moving elsewhere.

Among the famous locomotives, the Fairy Queen is the oldest running locomotive on the mainline (though only for specials) in the world today, though the distinction of the oldest surviving locomotive belongs to John Bull. Kharagpur railway station also has the distinction of being the world's longest railway platform at 1072 m (3,517 ft). The Ghum station along the Darjeeling Toy Train route is the second highest railway station in the world to be reached by a steam locomotive.[5]

ಕೆಲವು ಸ್ವಾರಸ್ಯಕರ ಅಂಕಿ ಅಂಶಗಳು

  • ಒಟ್ಟು ರೈಲುಗಳು : 7,566
  • ಕೋಚುಗಳು : 37,840
  • ಸರಕು ವ್ಯಾಗನ್ನುಗಳು : 2,22,147
  • ರೈಲ್ವೆ ಸ್ಟೇಷನ್ನುಗಳು : 6,853
  • ಯಾರ್ಡುಗಳು : 300
  • ಸರಕು ಶೆಡ್ಡುಗಳು : 2,300
  • ರಿಪೇರಿ ಕಾರ್ಯಾಗಾರಗಳು : 700
  • ಸಿಬ್ಬಂದಿ : 15,40,000
  • ಅತಿ ಚಿಕ್ಕ ಹೆಸರಿನ ಸ್ಟೇಷನ್ : ಇಬ್
  • ಅತಿ ಉದ್ದ ಹೆಸರಿನ ಸ್ಟೇಷನ್ : ಶ್ರೀ ವೆಂಕಟನರಸಿಂಹರಾಜುವಾರಿಪೇಟ
  • ಅತಿ ಉದ್ದದ ದಾರಿ ಕ್ರಮಿಸುವ ರೈಲು : ಹಿಮಸಾಗರ ಎಕ್ಸ್ ಪ್ರೆಸ್ . ಕನ್ಯಾಕುಮಾರಿಯಿಂದ ಜಮ್ಮು ತಾವಿಗೆ ಸಾಗುವ ಈ ರೈಲು 3,745 ಕಿ.ಮೀ ( 2,327 ಮೈಲಿ)ಗಳನ್ನು ಸುಮಾರು 74 ಘಂಟೆ 55 ನಿಮಿಷಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಕ್ರಮಿಸುತ್ತದೆ.

ಮತ್ತು ಕೋಟಾ ಸ್ಟೇಷನ್ನುಗಳ ನಡುವಿನ 528 ಕಿ.ಮೀ (328 ಮೈಲುಗಳು) ದೂರವನ್ನು ಒಂದೂ ತಡೆಯಿಲ್ಲದೆ, ಸುಮಾರು ಆರೂವರೆ ಘಂಟೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ , ಕ್ರಮಿಸುತ್ತದೆ.

  • ಅತಿ ವೇಗದ ರೈಲು : ಭೋಪಾಲ್ ಶತಾಬ್ದಿ ಎಕ್ಸ್ ಪ್ರೆಸ್ ಫರೀದಾಬಾದ್-ಆಗ್ರಾವಿಭಾಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಘಂಟೆಗೆ 140 ಕಿ.ಮೀ (87 ಮೈಲಿ) ವೇಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಧಾವಿಸುತ್ತದೆ.

The fastest speed attained by any train is 184 km/h (114 mph) in 2000 during test runs. This speed is much lower than fast trains in other parts of the world. One reason attributed for this difference is that the tracks are not suited for higher speeds due to lower standards of maintenance than on the High Speed Networks of for example Europe.

ಆಡಳಿತಾತ್ಮಕ ಚೌಕಟ್ಟು[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

ಭಾರತೀಯ ರೈಲ್ವೆಯು ಕೇಂದ್ರ ಸರಕಾರದ ರೈಲ್ವೇ ಖಾತೆಯ ಅಧೀನದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಒಂದು ಇಲಾಖೆ.







ಲಾಲೂ ಪ್ರಸಾದ ಯಾದವ್ ಹಾಲೀ ರೈಲು ಮಂತ್ರಿಯಾಗಿದ್ದಾರೆ (2007). ಇನ್ನಿಬ್ಬರು ರಾಜ್ಯಮಂತ್ರಿಗಳು ( ಆರ್. ವೇಲು ಮತ್ತು ನರನ್ ಭಾಯಿ ಜೇಥ್ವಾ ) ರೈಲು ಮಂತ್ರಿಗಳ ಸಹಾಯಕರಾಗಿ ಕಾರ್ಯ ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಆರು ಸದಸ್ಯರು ಹಾಗೂ ಒಬ್ಬ ಅಧ್ಯಕ್ಷರಿರುವ ರೈಲು ಮಂಡಳಿಯು ಭಾರತೀಯ ರೈಲ್ವೆಯ ಆಡಳಿತವನ್ನು ನೋಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತದೆ.

ಭಾರತೀಯ ರೈಲ್ವೆಯನ್ನು ಹದಿನಾರು ವಲಯಗಳಾಗಿ ವಿಭಜಿಸಲಾಗಿದ್ದು , ಪ್ರತಿಯೊಂದು ವಲಯವನ್ನೂ ಒಬ್ಬೊಬ್ಬ ಮಹಾ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥಾಪಕ (General Manager -GM)ರ ನಿಯಂತ್ರಣದಲ್ಲಿದ್ದು ,ಈ ಮಹಾ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥಾಪಕರು ರೈಲು ಮಂಡಳಿಯ ನೇರ ನಿಯಂತ್ರಣದಲ್ಲಿರುತ್ತಾರೆ. The zones are further divided into divisions under the control of Divisional Railway Managers (DRM). The divisional officers of engineering, mechanical, electrical, signal & telecommunication, accounts, personnel, operating, commercial and safety branches report to the respective Divisional Manager and are in charge of operation and maintenance of assets. Further down the hierarchy tree are the Station Masters who control individual stations and the train movement through the track territory under their stations' administration. In addition to the zones, the six production units (PUs) are each headed by a General Manager (GM), who also reports directly to the Railway Board.

In addition to this the Central Organisation for Railway Electrification (CORE), Metro Railway, Calcutta and construction organisation of N F Railway are also headed by a GM. CORE is located at Allahabad. This organisation undertakes electrification projects of Indian Railway and monitors the progress of various electrification projects all over the country.

Apart from these zones and production units, a number of Public Sector Undertakings (PSU) are under the administrative control of the ministry of railways. These PSU's are:

Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India Indian Railways Catering and Tourism Corporation Konkan Railway Corporation Indian Railway Finance Corporation Mumbai Rail Vikas Corporation Railtel Corporation of India – Telecommunication Networks RITES Ltd. – Consulting Division of Indian Railways IRCON International Ltd. – Construction Division Rail Vikas Nigam Limited Container Corporation Limited Centre for Railway Information Systems is an autonomous society under Railway Board, which is responsible for developing the major software required by Indian Railways for its operations.

Rail budget and finances[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

A sample ticket; Fares on the network are among the cheapest in the world.The Railway Budget deals with the induction and improvement of existing trains and routes, the modernisation and most importantly the tariff for freight and passenger travel. The Parliament discusses the policies and allocations proposed in the budget. The budget needs to be passed by a simple majority in the Lok Sabha (India's Lower House). The comments of the Rajya Sabha (Upper House) are non binding. Indian Railways are subject to the same audit control as other government revenue and expenditures. Based on the anticipated traffic and the projected tariff, the level of resources required for railway's capital and revenue expenditure is worked out. While the revenue expenditure is met entirely by railways itself, the shortfall in the capital (plan) expenditure is met partly from borrowings (raised by Indian Railway Finance Corporation) and the rest from Budgetory support from the Central Government. Indian Railways pays dividend to the Central Government for the capital invested by the Central Government.

As per the Separation Convention (on the recommendations of the Acworth Committee), 1924, the Railway Budget is presented to the Parliament by the Union Railway Minister, two days prior to the General Budget, usually around 26 February. Though the Railway Budget is separately presented to the Parliament, the figures relating to the receipt and expenditure of the Railways are also shown in the General Budget, since they are a part and parcel of the total receipts and expenditure of the Government of India. This document serves as a balance sheet of operations of the Railways during the previous year and lists out plans for expansion for the current year.

The formation of policy and overall control of the railways is vested in Railway Board comprising the Chairman, Financial Commissioner and other functional Members for Traffic, Engineering, Mechanical, Electrical and Staff matters. As per the 2006 budget, Indian Railways earned Rs. 54,600 crores[7] (Rs. 546,000 million or US$12,300 million). Freight earnings increased by 10% from Rs. 30,450 cr (US$7,000 million) in the previous year. Passenger earnings, other coaching earnings and sundry other earnings increased by 7%, 19% and 56% respectively over previous year. Its year end fund balance is expected to stand at Rs. 11,280 cr (2.54 billion US$).[8]

Around 20% of the passenger revenue is earned from the upper class segments of the passenger segment (the air-conditioned classes). The overall passenger traffic grew 7.5% in the previous year. In the first two months of India's fiscal year 2005-06 (April and May), the Railways registered a 10% growth in passenger traffic, and a 12% in passenger earnings.[9]

A new concern faced by Indian Railways is competition from low cost airlines that has recently made its début in India. In a cost cutting move, the Railways plans to minimise unwanted cessations, and scrap unpopular routes.


Current problems[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Level crossings like these usually see a high accident rateIndian railways suffers from deteriorating finances and lack the funds for future investment. Last year, India spent $28 billion, or 3.6% of GDP, on infrastructure. The main problem plaguing the Railways is the high accident rate which stands at about three hundred[10] a year. Although accidents such as derailment and collisions are less common in recent times, many are run over by trains, especially in crowded areas. Indian Railways have accepted the fact that given the size of operations, eliminating accidents is an unrealistic goal, and at best they can only minimise the accident rate. Human error is the primary cause (83%)[11] blamed for mishaps. The Konkan Railway route suffers from landslides in the monsoon season, which has caused fatal accidents in the recent past.

Contributing to the Railways' problems are the antiquated communication, safety and signalling equipment. One area of upgrading badly required is an automated signalling system to prevent crashes. A number of train accidents happened due to a manual system of signals between stations. However, the changeover to a new system would require a substantial investment. It is felt that this would be required given the gradual increase in train speeds and lengths, that would make accidents more dangerous. In the latest instances of signalling control by means of interlinked stations (e.g., Chennai - Washermanpet), failure-detection circuits are provided for each track circuit and signal circuit with notification to the signal control centres in case of problems.[12] However, this is available in a very small subset of the total Railways.

Aging colonial-era bridges and century-old tracks also require regular maintenance and upgrading. In recent years Indian Railways has claimed that it has achieved a financial turnaround, with (unaudited) operating profits expected to improve by 83.7%.[13] Credit for this achievement has been claimed by current Indian Railway Minister, Mr Lalu Prasad Yadav who claims to have brought a significant improvement in operating efficiency of goods traffic after he took over as Railway Minister in May 2004.[14]

The Rajdhani Express and Shatabadi Express are the fastest and most luxurious trains of Indian Railways, though they face increasing pressure from air travel, as the trains travel only 80 kms per hour (c.f. Fastest trains in India) and their food and service is not competitive.[15] To modernise Indian Rail and to bring it at par with the developed world, it requires massive investment to the tune of US$50-100 billion.[16]

Sixth Pay Commission has been constituted in India to review the pay structure of the Government employees and its recommendations are expected by the end of 2008 and based on its recommendations, the salaries of all Raiways officers and staff are expected to be revised with retrospective effect (w.e.f. January 01, 2006). If previous Pay Commissions are taken as indicator then this revision will not be less than 50% upwards and it may hit Raiways bottomlines severely and possibly mitigate all the good work of the Railways.

Sanitation and use of modern technology in that area has been a problem. Although Indian Rail has announced the introduction of dry toilets in the trains, so far not much headway has been made and the train toilets continue to drop the wastes on the rail tracks.

Plans to upgrade coaches are on track. In August, 2007 new LHB German coaches manufactured in India will be introduced on the daily run of the prestigious East Central Railway (ECR) Patna-New Delhi Radjhani Express. These coaches will enhance the safety and riding comfort of passengers, and in time will eventually replace thousands of old model coaches throughout Indian Railways.


See also[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Fastest trains in India Indian locomotives

Notes[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

^ a b Salient Features of Indian Railways. Figures as of 2002. ^ Guinness Book of World Records-2005, pg 93 ^ The Hindu newspaper online ^ Article in The Tribune ^ Indian Railways Site ^ Indian Railways stats ^ Indian numbering system. 1 crore = 10,000,000 ^ Highlights of Rail Budget 2006-07. (1 USD = 44.36 INR as of 2006-02-27). ^ Times of India ^ Rail Budget 2005 ^ Frontline magazine online, Amulya Gopalakrishnan, Volume 20–Issue 15, July 19– August 01, 2003 ^ Indian Railways Signalling System, Indian Railways Signalling Systems ^ [1] ^ [2] ^ [3] ^ [4]

References[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Indian Railways FAQ. Indian Railways Fan Club. Retrieved on June 18, 2006. IR History: Early Days. Indian Railways Fan Club. Retrieved on June 19, 2005. Railway Zones. Indian Railways Fan Club. Retrieved on June 19, 2005. Famous Trains. Indian Railways Fan Club. Retrieved on June 19, 2005. Freight Trains. Indian Railways Fan Club. Retrieved on June 19, 2005. Miscellaneous material on Indian Railways. Indian Railways Fan Club. Retrieved on June 18, 2006. Trivia. Indian Railways Fan Club. Retrieved on June 19, 2005. Introductory History of Indian Railways. Glyn's Trains. Retrieved on June 19, 2005. Salient Features of Indian Railways. Indian Railways. Retrieved on June 19, 2005. Highlights of railway budget, 2006-07. Rediff.com. Retrieved on February 27, 2006. Indian Railway takes the E-route. Times of India. Retrieved on June 19, 2005. The Rediff Interview. Rediff.com. Retrieved on June 19, 2005. A poor track record. Frontline magazine online. Retrieved on June 19, 2005. Various authors (2004). Guinness Book of World Records-2005. Guinness World Records Ltd. ISBN 0-85112-192-6.