ಜಿಮ್ಮಿ ವೇಲ್ಸ್

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ಜಿಮ್ಮಿ ವೇಲ್ಸ್
Jimmy Wales Fundraiser Appeal edit.jpg
ಡಿಸೆಂಬರ್ ೨೦೦೮ರಲ್ಲಿ ವೇಲ್ಸ್
ವಾಸಿಸುವ ಸ್ಥಳSt. Petersburg, Florida
ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯತೆಅಮೆರಿಕ ಸಂಯುಕ್ತ ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನ
Other namesಜಿಂಬೊ (online alias)[೧]
Alma materಆಬನ್೯ ವಿಶ್ವವಿದ್ಯಾನಿಲಯ, ಅಲಬಾಮಾ ವಿಶ್ವವಿದ್ಯಾನಿಲಯ, ಇಂಡಿಯಾನಾ ವಿಶ್ವವಿದ್ಯಾನಿಲಯ ಬ್ಲೂಮಿಂಗ್‌ಟನ್
ವೃತ್ತಿಹೂಡಿಕೆ ಬ್ಯಾಂಕರ್, ಅಂತಜಾ೯ಲ ಉದ್ಯಮಿ
ಕಾರ್ಯಕ್ಷೇತ್ರವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ ಸಹ-ಸ್ಥಾಪನೆ
TitlePresident of Wikia, Inc. (2004–present)
Chairman, Wikimedia Foundation (June 2003 – October 2006)
Chairman Emeritus, Wikimedia Foundation (October 2006–present)
SuccessorFlorence Devouard
Board member ofWikimedia Foundation, Creative Commons, Socialtext, MIT Center for Collective Intelligence (advisory board)
ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿಗಳುEFF Pioneer Award (2006)
The Economist's Business Process Award (2008)
The Global Brand Icon of the Year Award (2008)
Gottlieb Duttweiler Prize (2010)[೨]

ಜಿಮ್ಮಿ ಡೊನಾಲ್ "ಜಿಂಬೊ" ವೇಲ್ಸ್ - (ಜನನ:೧೯೬೬) - ಅಮೆರಿಕಾದ ಅಂತರಜಾಲ ಉದ್ಯಮಿ ಹಾಗೂ ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯದ ಸಹ-ಸ್ಥಾಪಕ ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರವತ೯ಕ.[೩][೪]

ವೇಲ್ಸ್ ಅಮೆರಿಕ ಸಂಯುಕ್ತ ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನದ ಅಲಬಾಮಾ ರಾಜ್ಯದ ಹಂಟ್ಸ್‌ವಿಲ್ಲೆ ಎಂಬಲ್ಲಿ ಜನಿಸಿದರು. He attended The Randolph School and a university-preparatory school, and then earned bachelor's and master's degrees in finance. While in graduate school, he taught at two universities. Wales later took a job in finance, and worked as the research director of a Chicago futures and options firm for several years. In 1996, he and two partners founded Bomis, a web portal that targeted males, and which hosted, and provided the initial funding for, the peer-reviewed encyclopedia Nupedia (2000–2003) and its successor, Wikipedia.

In 2001, together with Larry Sanger and others, Wales helped launch Wikipedia, a free, open content encyclopedia which enjoyed rapid growth and popularity. As Wikipedia's public profile grew, Wales became the project's promoter and spokesman. Wales is historically cited as a co-founder of Wikipedia, though he has disputed the "co-" designation in declaring himself the sole founder.[೫][೬] Wales serves on the Board of Trustees of the Wikimedia Foundation, the non-profit charitable organization which operates Wikipedia. He holds its board-appointed "community founder" seat. In 2004, he co-founded Wikia, a privately owned, free Web-hosting service, with fellow Wikimedia trustee Angela Beesley.

Wales has been married twice and has a daughter with Christine, his second wife, from whom he is separated. He describes himself as an Objectivist and, with reservations, a libertarian. His role in creating Wikipedia, which has become the world's largest encyclopedia, prompted Time magazine to name him in its 2006 list of the world's most influential people. Wales is the de facto leader of Wikipedia.[೪][೭]

Early life and education[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Wales was born in Huntsville, Alabama, in the United States on August 7 or 8, 1966.[೮][note] His father, Jimmy,[೯] worked as a grocery store manager while his mother, Doris, and his grandmother, Erma, ran the House of Learning,[೧೦] a small private school in the tradition of the one-room schoolhouse, where Wales and his three siblings received their early education.[೮][೧೦] As a child, Wales was a keen reader with an acute intellectual curiosity[೪] and, in what he credits to the influence of the Montessori method on the school's philosophy of education, "spent lots of hours pouring [sic] over the Britannicas and World Book Encyclopedias."[೧] There were only four other children in Wales' grade, so the school grouped together the first through fourth grade students and the fifth through eighth grade students.[೧] As an adult, Wales was sharply critical of the government's treatment of the school, citing the "constant interference and bureaucracy and very sort of snobby inspectors from the state" as a formative influence on his political philosophy.[೧]

After eighth grade, Wales attended Randolph School,[೧೧] a university-preparatory school in Huntsville, graduating at sixteen.[೧೨] Wales said that the school was expensive for his family, but that "education was always a passion in my household ... you know, the very traditional approach to knowledge and learning and establishing that as a base for a good life."[೧] He received his bachelor's degree in finance from Auburn University. Wales then entered the Ph.D. finance program at the University of Alabama before leaving with a master's degree to enter the Ph.D. finance program at Indiana University.[೧][೮][೧೨] He taught at both universities during his postgraduate studies but did not write the doctoral dissertation required for a Ph.D., something he ascribed to boredom.[೧][೮]


Chicago Options Associates and Bomis[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

In 1994, Wales took a job with Chicago Options Associates, a futures and options trading firm in Chicago, Illinois.[೧][೧೩][೧೪] By "speculating on interest-rate and foreign-currency fluctuations," he had soon earned enough to "support himself and his wife for the rest of their lives," according to Daniel Pink of Wired magazine.[೧೦] Wales has described himself as having been addicted to the Internet from an early stage and used to write computer code as a pastime.[೧೫] During his studies in Alabama, he became an obsessive player of Multi-User Dungeons (MUDs)—a type of virtual role-playing game—and thereby experienced the potential of computer networks to foster large-scale collaborative projects.[೧೨][೧೬]

Inspired by the remarkable initial public offering of Netscape in 1995, he decided to become an Internet entrepreneur[೧೨] and, in 1996, founded the web portal Bomis, with two partners.[೧೦][೧೭] The website featured user-generated webrings and, for a time, sold erotic photographs.[೧೮] Wales described it as a "guy-oriented search engine" with a market similar to that of Maxim magazine;[೧][೮][೧೯] and according to The Atlantic Monthly it "found itself positioned as the Playboy of the Internet".[೧೭] Bomis did not become successful, but in March 2000 hosted and provided the initial funding for the Nupedia project.[೮][೧೦][೨೦]

Nupedia and the origins of Wikipedia[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Philosopher Larry Sanger, whom Wales hired as editor-in-chief of Nupedia

Though Bomis had struggled to make money, it provided Wales with the funding to pursue his greater passion, an online encyclopedia.[೮] While moderating an online discussion group devoted to the philosophy of Objectivism in the early 1990s, Wales had encountered Larry Sanger, a sceptic of the philosophy.[೪] The two had engaged in detailed debate on the subject on Wales' list and then on Sanger's, eventually meeting offline to continue the debate and becoming friends.[೪] Deciding to pursue his encyclopedia project years later, Wales invited Sanger—who at that time was a doctoral student in philosophy at Ohio State University—to be its editor-in-chief, and in March 2000, Nupedia ("the free encyclopedia"), a peer-reviewed, open-content encyclopedia, was launched.[೧][೮] The intent behind Nupedia was to have expert-written entries on a variety of topics, and to sell advertising alongside the entries in order to make profit.[೪] The project was characterized by an extensive peer-review process designed to make its articles of a quality comparable to that of professional encyclopedias.[೨೧]

The idea was to have thousands of volunteers writing articles for an online encyclopedia in all languages. Initially we found ourselves organising the work in a very top-down, structured, academic, old-fashioned way. It was no fun for the volunteer writers because we had a lot of academic peer review committees who would criticise articles and give feedback. It was like handing in an essay at grad school, and basically intimidating to participate in.

—Jimmy Wales on the Nupedia project, New Scientist, January 31, 2007[೨೨]

In January 2001, Sanger was introduced to the concept of a wiki by extreme programming enthusiast Ben Kovitz after explaining to Kovitz the slow pace of growth Nupedia endured as a result of its onerous submission process.[೨೩] Kovitz suggested that adopting the wiki model would allow editors to contribute simultaneously and incrementally throughout the project, thus breaking Nupedia's bottleneck.[೨೩] Sanger was excited about the idea, and after he proposed it to Wales, they created the first Nupedia wiki on January 10, 2001.[೨೩] The wiki was initially intended as a collaborative project for the public to write articles that would then be reviewed for publication by Nupedia's expert volunteers. The majority of Nupedia's experts, however, wanted nothing to do with this project, fearing that mixing amateur content with professionally researched and edited material would compromise the integrity of Nupedia's information and damage the credibility of the encyclopedia.[೨೪] Thus the wiki project, dubbed "Wikipedia" by Sanger,[೫] went live at a separate domain five days after its creation.[೧೪][೨೦]


Neither Sanger nor Wales expected very much from the Nupedia wiki initiative.[೧೪][೧೬] Wales, anticipating "complete rubbish", hoped that if they were lucky, Wikipedia might yield a couple of rough draft entries for Nupedia.[೧೪] To the surprise of Sanger and Wales, within a few days of launching the number of articles on Wikipedia had outgrown that of Nupedia, and a small collective of editors had formed.[೧೩][೧೬] Many of the early contributors to the site were familiar with the model of the free culture movement, and, like Wales, many of them sympathized with the open-source movement.[೨೪] Wales has said that he was initially so worried with the concept of open editing, anyone can edit the encyclopedia, that he would awake during the night and monitor what was being added.[೨೫][೨೬] Nonetheless, the cadre of early editors helped create a robust, self-regulating community that has proven conducive to the growth of the project.[೮]

Sanger developed Wikipedia in its early phase and guided the project.[೫][೨೭] The broader idea he ascribes to Wales, remarking in a 2005 memoir for Slashdot that "the idea of an open source, collaborative encyclopedia, open to contribution by ordinary people, was entirely Jimmy's, not mine, and the funding was entirely by Bomis", adding, "the actual development of this encyclopedia was the task he gave me to work on."[೨೮] Sanger worked on and promoted both the Nupedia and Wikipedia projects until Bomis discontinued funding for his position in February 2002;[೨೯] Sanger resigned as editor-in-chief of Nupedia and as "chief organizer" of Wikipedia on March 1 of that year.[೩೦][೩೧] In the early years, Wales had supplied the financial backing for the project,[೨೭][೩೨] and entertained the notion of placing advertisements on Wikipedia before costs were reduced with Sanger's departure and plans for a nonprofit foundation were advanced instead.[೩೩]


Wales has asserted that he is the sole founder of Wikipedia,[೬] and has publicly disputed Sanger's designation as a co-founder. Sanger and Wales were identified as co-founders at least as early as September 2001 by The New York Times and as founders in Wikipedia's first press release in January 2002.[೩೪][೩೫] In August of that year, Wales identified himself as "co-founder" of Wikipedia.[೩೬] Sanger assembled on his personal webpage an assortment of links that appear to confirm the status of Sanger and Wales as co-founders.[೫][೩೭] For example, Sanger and Wales are historically cited or described in early news citations and press releases as co-founders.[೫] Wales was quoted by The Boston Globe as calling Sanger's claim "preposterous" in February 2006,[೩೮] and called "the whole debate silly" in an April 2009 interview.[೩೯]

In late 2005, Wales edited his own biographical entry on the English Wikipedia. Writer Rogers Cadenhead drew attention to logs showing that in his edits to the page, Wales had removed references to Sanger as the co-founder of Wikipedia.[೪೦][೪೧] Sanger commented that "having seen edits like this, it does seem that Jimmy is attempting to rewrite history. But this is a futile process because in our brave new world of transparent activity and maximum communication, the truth will out."[೧೯][೪೨] Wales was also observed to have modified references to Bomis in a way that was characterized as downplaying the sexual nature of some of his former company's products.[೧೪][೧೯] Though Wales argued that his modifications were solely intended to improve the accuracy of the content,[೧೯] he apologized for editing his own biography, a practice generally discouraged on Wikipedia.[೧೯][೪೨]

The January/February 2006 issue of Maximum PC reported that Wales refused to abide by a request of the People's Republic of China to censor "politically sensitive" articles in Wikipedia. Other big business Internet companies such as Google, Yahoo and Microsoft have already yielded to Chinese government pressure. Mr. Wales would rather see companies such as Google follow suit on Wikipedia's policy of freedom of information.[೪೩]


Wales delivering the keynote speech ("The State of the Wiki") at Wikimania, the conference for Wikimedia projects, in Buenos Aires in 2009

In a 2004 interview with Slashdot, Wales outlined his vision for Wikipedia: "Imagine a world in which every single person on the planet is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge. That's what we're doing."[೪೪] The growth and prominence of Wikipedia made Wales an Internet celebrity.[೪೫] Though he had never traveled farther than Canada and Mexico prior to founding the site, his participation in the Wikipedia project saw him flying internationally on a near-constant basis as its public face.[೪][೧೫]

Although his formal designation is that of mere board member and chairman emeritus of the Wikimedia Foundation, Wales' social capital within the Wikipedia community has accorded him a status that has been characterized as benevolent dictator, constitutional monarch and spiritual leader.[೪೬][೪೭][೪೮] He is also the closest the project has to a spokesperson.[೪] Despite involvement in other projects, Wales has denied intending to reduce his role within Wikipedia, telling The New York Times in 2008 that "Dialing down is not an option for me ... Not to be too dramatic about it, but, 'to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language,' that's who I am. That's what I am doing. That's my life goal."[೪೭]

ವಿಕಿಮೀಡಿಯ ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಠಾನ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Wales appearing as a member of the Wikimedia Foundation Board of Trustees on a panel at Wikimania 2007.

In mid-2003, Wales set up the Wikimedia Foundation (WMF), a non-profit organization founded in St. Petersburg, Florida and headquartered on the West Coast of the United States, in San Francisco, California.[೪೯][೫೦] All intellectual property rights and domain names pertaining to Wikipedia were moved to the new foundation,[೫೧] whose purpose is to establish general policy for the encyclopedia and its sister projects.[೧೬] Wales has been a member of the Wikimedia Foundation's Board of Trustees since it was formed and was its official Chairman from 2003 through 2006.[೫೨] From 2006 to date he serves under the honorary title of Chairman Emeritus and holds the board-appointed "community founder" seat.[೫೩] His work for the foundation, including his appearances to promote it at computer and educational conferences, has always been unpaid.[೧೮] Wales has often joked that donating Wikipedia to the foundation was both the "dumbest and the smartest" thing he had done. On the one hand, he estimated that Wikipedia was worth US$3 billion; on the other, he weighed his belief that the donation made possible its success.[೨೨][೫೧][೫೪][೫೫]

Wales' association with the foundation has led to controversy. In March 2008, Wales was accused by former Wikimedia Foundation employee Danny Wool of misusing the foundation's funds for recreational purposes. Wool also stated that Wales had his Wikimedia credit card taken away in part because of his spending habits, a claim Wales denied.[೫೬] Then-chairperson of the foundation Florence Devouard and former foundation interim Executive Director Brad Patrick denied any wrongdoing by Wales or the foundation, saying that Wales accounted for every expense and that, for items for which he lacked receipts, he paid out of his own pocket; in private, Devouard upbraided Wales for "constantly trying to rewrite the past".[೫೭] Later in March 2008, it was claimed by Jeffrey Vernon Merkey that Wales had edited Merkey's Wikipedia entry to make it more favorable in return for donations to the Wikimedia Foundation, an allegation Wales dismissed as "nonsense".[೫೮][೫೯]

Wikia and later pursuits[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Jimmy Wales 2014 on CeBIT Global Conferences, Wikipedia Zero

In 2004, Wales and then-fellow member of the WMF Board of Trustees Angela Beesley founded the for-profit company Wikia.[೧೩] Wikia is a wiki farm—a collection of individual wikis on different subjects, all hosted on the same website. It hosts some of the largest wikis outside Wikipedia, including Memory Alpha (devoted to Star Trek) and Wookieepedia (Star Wars).[೬೦] Another service offered by Wikia was Wikia Search, an open source web search engine intended to challenge Google and introduce transparency and public dialogue about how it is created into the search engine's operations,[೬೧] but the project was abandoned in March 2009.[೬೨] Wales stepped down as Wikia CEO to be replaced by angel investor Gil Penchina, a former vice president and general manager at eBay, on June 5, 2006.[೬೩] Penchina declared Wikia to have reached profitability in September 2009.[೬೪]

In addition to his role at Wikia, Wales is a public speaker represented by the Harry Walker Agency,[೬೫] which characterizes him as "the founder" of Wikipedia.[೬೬]

He has also participated in a celebrity endorsement campaign for the Swiss watch maker Maurice Lacroix.[೬೭]

ವೈಯಕ್ತಿಕ ಜೀವನ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Wales with his second wife Christine

Wales has been married twice, and has one child.[೧][೧೫] At the age of 20, Wales married Pam, a co-worker at a grocery-store in Alabama.[೧೫] He met his second wife, Christine Rohan, through a friend in Chicago while she was working as a steel trader for Mitsubishi.[೧][೧೨] The couple were married in Monroe County, Florida in March 1997,[೬೮] and had a daughter before separating.[೫೭] Wales moved to San Diego in 1998, and after being dissuaded by the housing market there, relocated in 2002 to St. Petersburg, Florida,[೩೨] where he has remained as of 2007.[೧೨][೬೯]

According to the Tampa Tribune, by 2006, Wales spent a good portion of his time traveling to promote Wikipedia and his other projects. He mentioned to the paper that he was studying German, having decided to become bilingual, as befitting someone "leading this global movement."[೭೦]

Wales had a brief relationship with Canadian conservative columnist Rachel Marsden in 2008 that began after Marsden contacted Wales about her Wikipedia biography.[೭೧] After accusations that Wales' relationship constituted a conflict of interest, Wales announced in March 2008 on his Wikipedia user page (and later on his personal blog) that there had been a relationship but that it was over and claimed that it had not influenced any matters on Wikipedia.[೭೨][೭೩] Marsden claimed that Wales had made statements to the contrary via instant messenger, and further claimed that Wales ended the relationship "via an announcement on Wikipedia".[೭೪]

ಚಿಂತನೆ ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರಭಾವ[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Wales in June 2008

Wales is a self-avowed "Objectivist to the core";[೬೧] Objectivism being an individualist philosophy developed by writer Ayn Rand in the 20th century. Wales first encountered the philosophy through reading Rand's novel The Fountainhead while an undergraduate,[೧] and in 1992 founded an electronic mailing list devoted to "Moderated Discussion of Objectivist Philosophy".[೪][೭೫] Though he has stated that the philosophy "colours everything I do and think",[೪] he has said "I think I do a better job—than a lot of people who self-identify as Objectivists—of not pushing my point of view on other people."[೭೬] When asked about Rand's influence by Brian Lamb in his appearance on C-SPAN's Q&A in September 2005, Wales cited integrity and "the virtue of independence" as important to him personally. When asked if he could trace "the Ayn Rand connection" to having a political philosophy at the time of the interview, Wales reluctantly labeled himself a libertarian, qualifying his remark by referring to the United States Libertarian Party as "lunatics" and citing "freedom, liberty, basically individual rights, that idea of dealing with other people in a matter that is not initiating force against them" as his guiding principles.[೧] An interview with Wales served as the cover feature of the June 2007 issue of the libertarian magazine Reason.[೮]

Wales cites Austrian School economist Friedrich von Hayek's essay "The Use of Knowledge in Society", which he read as an undergraduate,[೧೪] as "central" to his thinking about "how to manage the Wikipedia project".[೮] Hayek argued that information is decentralised – that each individual only knows a small fraction of what is known collectively – and that as a result, decisions are best made by those with local knowledge rather than by a central authority.[೮] Wales reconsidered Hayek's essay in the 1990s, while reading about the open source movement (which advocated that software be free and distributed). He was moved in particular by "The Cathedral and the Bazaar", an essay and later book by one of the founders of the movement, Eric S. Raymond, which "opened [his] eyes to the possibilities of mass collaboration".[೧೪] From his background in finance and working as a futures and options trader, Wales developed an interest in game theory and the effect of incentives on human collaborative activity, a fascination to which he credits enabling much of his effort with Wikipedia.[೭೭] He has rejected the notion that his role in promoting Wikipedia is altruistic, which he defines as "sacrificing your own values for others", stating "[t]hat participating in a benevolent effort to share information is somehow destroying your own values makes no sense to me".[೧೫] In 2010, he slammed whistleblower website Wikileaks and its editor in chief Julian Assange, saying that their publication of Afghan war documents "could be enough to get someone killed," and he expressed irritation at their use of the name 'wiki'.[೭೮]

Honors, awards and positions[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

Wales receiving the Quadriga award on October 3, 2008
Wales on a billboard in Belgrade.
  • Mid-2005 — Wales was appointed as a member of the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School.[೧]
  • October 3, 2005 — Wales joined the Board of Directors of Socialtext, a provider of wiki technology to businesses.[೭೯]
  • 2006 — Wales joined the Board of Directors of the non-profit organization Creative Commons.[೮೦]
  • May 8, 2006 — Wales was listed in the "Scientists & Thinkers" section of the 100 influential people special edition of Time magazine.[೮೧]
  • June 3, 2006 — Wales received an honorary degree of doctor of laws from Knox College.[೮೨]
  • May 3, 2006 — The Electronic Frontier Foundation awarded him a Pioneer Award.[೮೩]
  • 2006 — Wales was appointed to the advisory board of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence.[೮೪]
  • January 23, 2007 — Forbes magazine ranked Wales twelfth in its first annual "The Web Celebs 25".[೮೫]
  • 2007 — Wales was recognized by the World Economic Forum as one of the 'Young Global Leaders' of 2007.[೮೬]
  • May 2008 — Wales co-chaired the World Economic Forum on the Middle East 2008 in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.[೮೭]
  • 2008 — CORUM awarded him The Global Brand Icon of the Year Award for 2008.[೮೮]
  • 2008 — Wales accepted on behalf of the Wikimedia project the Quadriga award of Werkstatt Deutschland for A Mission of Enlightenment.[೮೯]
  • October 30, 2008 — Wales was awarded the Business Process Award at the 7th Annual Innovation Awards and Summit by The Economist "for public collaboration as a form of product and content development."[೯೦]
  • November 4, 2009 — Wales was recognized with the Nokia Foundation annual award (2009) "for his contributions to the evolution of the World Wide Web as a participatory and truly democratic platform".[೯೧]
  • November 2009 — Wales was awarded the Monaco Media Prize for enabling collaborative knowledge-seeking.[೯೨]
  • December 7, 2009 — Wales announced that he will be joining the New York City-based Hunch.com as Board Member and advisor.[೯೩]
  • April 8, 2010 — Wales was honored as a Stuart Regen Visionary at New Museum in New York City.
  • May 21, 2010 — Wales received an honorary degree of doctor of laws from Stevenson University. Wales said that this was the very first college commencement speech that he had delivered.[೯೪][೯೫]
  • May 23, 2010 — Wales received an honorary degree of doctor of humane letters from Amherst College.[೯೪]
  • January 26, 2011 — Wales was slated to be awarded on the foregoing date the Gottlieb Duttweiler Prize according to an announcement made on October 8, 2010.[೯೬]

Published work[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  • Brooks, Robert (1994). "The Pricing of Index Options When the Underlying Assets All Follow a Lognormal Diffusion". Advances in Futures and Options Research. 7. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Wales, Jimmy (December 31, 2008). "Foreword". In Fraser, Matthew; Dutta, Soumitra (eds.). Throwing Sheep in the Boardroom: How Online Social Networking Will Transform Your Life, Work and World (1st ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0470740140. OCLC 233939846. Unknown parameter |separator= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Wales, Jimmy (January 8, 2009). "Commentary: Create a tech-friendly U.S. government". CNN.com. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Wales, Jimmy (February 10, 2009). "Foreword". In Powell, Juliette (ed.). 33 Million People in the Room: How to Create, Influence, and Run a Successful Business with Social Networking (1st ed.). Financial Times Press. ISBN 0137154356. OCLC 244066502. Unknown parameter |separator= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Wales, Jimmy (March 3, 2009). "Foreword". In Weber, Larry (ed.). Marketing to the Social Web: How Digital Customer Communities Build Your Business (2nd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0470410973. OCLC 244060887. Unknown parameter |separator= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Wales, Jimmy (March 30, 2009). "Most Define User-Generated Content Too Narrowly". Advertising Age. 80. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Wales, Jimmy (December 28, 2009). "Keep a Civil Cybertongue". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)


^ Although Wales' 1997 marriage certificate (to Christine Rohan), the Encyclopaedia Britannica, Current Biography Yearbook and Who's Who in America state that he was born on August 7,[೯೭] his Florida driver's license gives his birthday as August 8, and he has stated that the August 7 date is incorrect according to The Oregonian's OregonLive.com blog. He has also stated that he was born on August 7, 1966.[೯೮][೯೯]


  1. ೧.೦೦ ೧.೦೧ ೧.೦೨ ೧.೦೩ ೧.೦೪ ೧.೦೫ ೧.೦೬ ೧.೦೭ ೧.೦೮ ೧.೦೯ ೧.೧೦ ೧.೧೧ ೧.೧೨ ೧.೧೩ ೧.೧೪ Lamb, Brian (September 25, 2005). "Q&A: Jimmy Wales, Wikipedia founder". C-SPAN. Retrieved 2006-10-31.
  2. "Swiss award for Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales". Boston Herald. Associated Press. October 8, 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
  3. "Wikipedia: 50 languages, 1/2 million articles". Wikimedia Foundation Press Release. Wikimedia Foundation. 2004-04-25. Retrieved 2009-04-10."The Wikipedia project was founded in January 2001 by Internet entrepreneur Jimmy Wales and philosopher Larry Sanger," quoted from the April 25th, 2004 first-ever press release issued by the Wikimedia Foundation.
     • "Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, reaches its 100,000th article". Wikipedia Press Release. Wikipedia. 2003-01-21. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
  4. ೪.೦ ೪.೧ ೪.೨ ೪.೩ ೪.೪ ೪.೫ ೪.೬ ೪.೭ ೪.೮ ೪.೯ "Brain scan: The free-knowledge fundamentalist". Technology Quarterly. The Economist. 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2008-06-09.
  5. ೫.೦ ೫.೧ ೫.೨ ೫.೩ ೫.೪ Bergstein, Brian (March 25, 2007). "Sanger says he co-started Wikipedia". MSNBC. Associated Press. Retrieved March 26, 2007. The nascent Web encyclopedia Citizendium springs from Larry Sanger, a philosophy Ph.D. who counts himself as a co-founder of Wikipedia, the site he now hopes to usurp. The claim does not seem particularly controversial—Sanger has long been cited as a co-founder. Yet the other founder, Jimmy Wales, is not happy about it.
  6. ೬.೦ ೬.೧ Olson, Parmy (October 18, 2006). "A New Kid On The Wiki Block". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2012-12-06. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
  7. Frith, Holden (March 26, 2007). "Wikipedia founder launches rival online encyclopaedia". London: The Times. Retrieved 2008-03-07.
  8. ೮.೦೦ ೮.೦೧ ೮.೦೨ ೮.೦೩ ೮.೦೪ ೮.೦೫ ೮.೦೬ ೮.೦೭ ೮.೦೮ ೮.೦೯ ೮.೧೦ ೮.೧೧ Mangu-Ward, Katherine (June 2007). "Wikipedia and beyond: Jimmy Wales' sprawling vision". Reason. 39 (2). p. 21. Retrieved 2008-10-31.
  9. Kazek, Kelly (August 11, 2006). "Geek to chic: Wikipedia founder a celebrity". The News Courier. Archived from the original on March 20, 2008. Doris Wales’ husband, Jimmy, wasn’t sure what she was thinking when she bought a World Book Encyclopedia set from a traveling salesman in 1968.
  10. ೧೦.೦ ೧೦.೧ ೧೦.೨ ೧೦.೩ ೧೦.೪ Pink, Daniel H. (March 13, 2005). "The Book Stops Here". Wired. 13 (3). Retrieved October 31, 2008.
  11. Brown, David (2007-12-11). "Jimmy Wales '83". Alumni Profiles. Randolph School. Retrieved 2008-10-31.
  12. ೧೨.೦ ೧೨.೧ ೧೨.೨ ೧೨.೩ ೧೨.೪ ೧೨.೫ Barnett, Cynthia (September 2005). "Wiki Mania". Florida Trend. 48 (5). p. 62. Archived from the original on October 17, 2002.
  13. ೧೩.೦ ೧೩.೧ ೧೩.೨ McNichol, Tom (May 1, 2007). "Building a Wiki World". Business 2.0. CNN. Retrieved October 31, 2007.
  14. ೧೪.೦ ೧೪.೧ ೧೪.೨ ೧೪.೩ ೧೪.೪ ೧೪.೫ ೧೪.೬ Schiff, Stacy (2006-07-31). "Know It All". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2008-10-31.
    b "Even Wales has been caught airbrushing his Wikipedia entry—eighteen times in the past year. He is particularly sensitive about references to the porn traffic on his Web portal. 'Adult content' or 'glamour photography' are the terms that he prefers, though, as one user pointed out on the site, they are perhaps not the most precise way to describe lesbian strip-poker threesomes. (In January, Wales agreed to a compromise: 'erotic photography')."
  15. ೧೫.೦ ೧೫.೧ ೧೫.೨ ೧೫.೩ ೧೫.೪ Lipsky-Karasz, Alisa (September 2008). "Mr. Know-It-All". W magazine. Retrieved October 31, 2008. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |work= (help)
  16. ೧೬.೦ ೧೬.೧ ೧೬.೨ ೧೬.೩ The Atlantic Monthly, September 2006, p. 93. "Wales, though, was a businessman. He wanted to build a free encyclopedia, and Wikipedia offered a very rapid and economically efficient means to that end. The articles flooded in, many were good, and they cost him almost nothing. [...] In 2003, Wales [decided to] diminish his own authority by transferring Wikipedia and all of its assets to the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation, whose sole purpose is to set general policy for Wikipedia and its allied projects. [...] Wales’s benign rule has allowed Wikipedia to do what it does best: grow. The numbers are staggering."
  17. ೧೭.೦ ೧೭.೧ The Atlantic Monthly, September 2006, p. 88. "In 1996, Wales and two partners founded a Web directory called Bomis. [...] Wales focused on the bottom-up strategy using Web rings, and it worked. Bomis users built hundreds of rings—on cars, computers, sports, and especially 'babes' (e.g., the Anna Kournikova Web ring), effectively creating an index of the 'laddie' Web. Instead of helping all users find all content, Bomis found itself positioned as the Playboy of the Internet, helping guys find guy stuff."
  18. ೧೮.೦ ೧೮.೧ Brennen, Jensen (June 26, 2006). "Access for All". The Chronicle of Philanthropy. 18 (18).
  19. ೧೯.೦ ೧೯.೧ ೧೯.೨ ೧೯.೩ ೧೯.೪ Hansen, Evan (December 19, 2005). "Wikipedia Founder Edits Own Bio". Wired News. Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved October 31, 2008.
  20. ೨೦.೦ ೨೦.೧ Rosenzweig, Roy (June 2006). "Can History Be Open Source? Wikipedia and the Future of the Past" (reprint). The Journal of American History. 93 (1): 117–146. doi:10.2307/4486062. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
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  22. ೨೨.೦ ೨೨.೧ Marks, Paul (February 3, 2007). "Interview with Jimmy Wales: Knowledge to the people" (video). New Scientist. Reed Business Information. 193 (2589): 44. Retrieved 2008-10-31.
  23. ೨೩.೦ ೨೩.೧ ೨೩.೨ The Atlantic Monthly, September 2006, p. 91. "The wiki [technology] quickly gained a devoted following within the software community. And there it remained until January 2001, when Sanger had dinner with an old friend named Ben Kovitz. [...] Over tacos that night, Sanger explained his concerns about Nupedia’s lack of progress, the root cause of which was its serial editorial system. [...] Kovitz brought up the wiki and sketched out 'wiki magic,' the mysterious process by which communities with common interests work to improve wiki pages by incremental contributions. If it worked for the rambunctious hacker culture of programming, Kovitz said, it could work for any online collaborative project. The wiki could break the Nupedia bottleneck by permitting volunteers to work simultaneously all over the project. [...] Wales and Sanger created the first Nupedia wiki on January 10, 2001. The initial purpose was to get the public to add entries that would then be “fed into the Nupedia process” of authorization."
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  34. Meyers, Peter (2001-09-20). "Fact-Driven? Collegial? This Site Wants You". The New York Times. p. C2. Retrieved 2008-10-31. I can start an article that will consist of one paragraph, and then a real expert will come along and add three paragraphs and clean up my one paragraph. —Larry Sanger.
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    C "Greatest misconception about Wikipedia: We aren’t democratic. Our readers edit the entries, but we’re actually quite snobby. The core community appreciates when someone is knowledgeable, and thinks some people are idiots and shouldn’t be writing."
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  94. "Stevenson University awards Honorary Degree". stevensonuniversity.org. May 21, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
  95. GD Prize 2011
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    • "Jimmy Wales". Monroe, Florida's County Clerk website (Marriage License Database). Retrieved 2008-05-21.
    • editor, Clifford Thompson... (February 28, 2007). Current Biography Yearbook. H. W. Wilson. ISBN 978-0824210748. Check date values in: |year= / |date= mismatch (help)CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
    • Who's Who In America: Diamond Edition (60 ed.). Marquis Who's Who. October 12, 2005. ISBN 978-0837969909.
  97. Wiebke Hollersen, Marin Majica (2008-05-31). "Die Entdeckung des Elfenbeinspechts : Textarchiv : Berliner Zeitung Archiv". Berlinonline.de. Retrieved 2010-06-23.
  98. Rogoway, Mike (July 27, 2007). "Wikipedia & its founder disagree on his birth date". Silicon Forest. The Oregonian. Retrieved October 31, 2008.

Further reading[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

External links[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

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