ಸಮಾರಿಯಮ್

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Samarium,  62Sm
Samarium-2.jpg
General properties
Name, symbolsamarium, Sm
Pronunciation/səˈmɛəriəm/
sə-MAIR-ee-əm
Allotropesα form
Appearancesilvery white
Samarium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transition metal)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)


Sm

Pu
promethiumsamariumeuropium
Atomic number62
Standard atomic weight150.36(2)[೧]
Element categorylanthanide
Group, blockgroup n/a, f-block
Periodperiod 6
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f6 6s2
per shell2, 8, 18, 24, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phasesolid
Melting point1345 K ​(1072 °C, ​1962 °F)
Boiling point2173 K ​(1900 °C, ​3452 °F)
Density (near r.t.)7.52 g·cm−3 (at 0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
Liquid densityat m.p.: 7.16 g·cm−3
Heat of fusion8.62 kJ·mol−1
Heat of 192 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity29.54 J·mol−1·K−1
 pressureಟೆಂಪ್ಲೇಟು:Infobox element/vapor pressure table
Atomic properties
Oxidation states4, 3, 2, 1 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity1.17 (Pauling scale)
energies1st: 544.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1070 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2260 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radiusempirical: 180 pm
Covalent radius198±8 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurerhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for samarium
Speed of soundthin rod: 2130 m·s−1 (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion(r.t.) (α, poly) 12.7 µm·m−1·K−1
Thermal conductivity13.3 W·m−1·K−1
Electrical resistivity(r.t.) (α, poly) 0.940 µΩ·m
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[೨]
Young's modulusα form: 49.7 GPa
Shear modulusα form: 19.5 GPa
Bulk modulusα form: 37.8 GPa
Poisson ratioα form: 0.274
Vickers hardness410–440 MPa
Brinell hardness440–600 MPa
CAS number7440-19-9
History
Namingafter the mineral samarskite (itself named after Vasili Samarsky-Bykhovets)
Discovery1879
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of samarium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
144Sm 3.07% (β+β+) 1.7811 144Nd
(α) 0.0761 140Nd
145Sm syn 340 d ε 145Pm
146Sm trace 1.03×108 y α 2.529 142Nd
147Sm 14.99% 1.06×1011 y α 2.310 143Nd
148Sm 11.24% 7×1015 y α 1.986 144Nd
149Sm 13.82% >2×1015 y (α) 1.870 145Nd
150Sm 7.38% (α) 1.4495 146Nd
151Sm syn 90 y β 151Eu
152Sm 26.75% (α) 0.2203 148Nd
153Sm syn 46.284 h β 153Eu
154Sm 22.75% >2.3×1018 y (ββ) 1.2510 154Gd
Decay modes in parentheses are predicted, but have not yet been observed
· references
Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, the discoverer of samarium

ಸಮಾರಿಯಮ್ ಒಂದು ಮೂಲಧಾತು.ಇದು ವಿರಳಧಾತು ಲೋಹಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದು.ಇದಕ್ಕೆ ರಷ್ಯದ ತಂತ್ರಜ್ಞ ಸಮರಸ್ಕಿಯವರ ಗೌರವಾರ್ಥ ಸಮಾರಿಯಮ್ ಎಂದು ಹೆಸರಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ.ಇದನ್ನು ೧೮೭೯ರಲ್ಲಿ ಫ್ರಾನ್ಸ್ ನ ವಿಜ್ಞಾನಿ ಪೌಲ್ ಎಮಿಲೆ ಲೆಕಾಕ್ ಡೆ ಬೋಯಿಸ್ ಬೌಡ್ರೆನ್ ಕಂಡುಹಿಡಿದರು.ಇದನ್ನು ಲೇಸರ್ ಗಳಲ್ಲಿ,ಕೆಲವು ರಾಸಾಯನಿಕ ಕ್ರಿಯೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ವೇಗವರ್ಧಕವಾಗಿ ಉಪಯೋಗಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ.

ಉಲ್ಲೇಖಗಳು[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  1. Standard Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
  2. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.

ಬಾಹ್ಯ ಸಂಪರ್ಕಗಳು[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]