ಸಮಾರಿಯಮ್

ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ ಇಂದ
ಇಲ್ಲಿಗೆ ಹೋಗು: ಸಂಚರಣೆ, ಹುಡುಕು
Samarium,  62Sm
Samarium-2.jpg
General properties
Name, symbol samarium, Sm
Pronunciation /səˈmɛəriəm/
sə-MAIR-ee-əm
Allotropes α form
Appearance silvery white
Samarium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transition metal)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)


Sm

Pu
promethiumsamariumeuropium
Atomic number 62
Standard atomic weight 150.36(2)[೧]
Element category lanthanide
Group, block group n/a, f-block
Period period 6
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f6 6s2
per shell 2, 8, 18, 24, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Melting point 1345 K ​(1072 °C, ​1962 °F)
Boiling point 2173 K ​(1900 °C, ​3452 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 7.52 g·cm−3 (at 0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
Liquid density at m.p.: 7.16 g·cm−3
Heat of fusion 8.62 kJ·mol−1
Heat of 192 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 29.54 J·mol−1·K−1
 pressureಟೆಂಪ್ಲೇಟು:Infobox element/vapor pressure table
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.17 (Pauling scale)
energies 1st: 544.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1070 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2260 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius empirical: 180 pm
Covalent radius 198±8 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure rhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for samarium
Speed of sound thin rod: 2130 m·s−1 (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (α, poly) 12.7 µm·m−1·K−1
Thermal conductivity 13.3 W·m−1·K−1
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (α, poly) 0.940 µΩ·m
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[೨]
Young's modulus α form: 49.7 GPa
Shear modulus α form: 19.5 GPa
Bulk modulus α form: 37.8 GPa
Poisson ratio α form: 0.274
Vickers hardness 410–440 MPa
Brinell hardness 440–600 MPa
CAS number 7440-19-9
History
Naming after the mineral samarskite (itself named after Vasili Samarsky-Bykhovets)
Discovery 1879
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of samarium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
144Sm 3.07% (β+β+) 1.7811 144Nd
(α) 0.0761 140Nd
145Sm syn 340 d ε 145Pm
146Sm trace 1.03×108 y α 2.529 142Nd
147Sm 14.99% 1.06×1011 y α 2.310 143Nd
148Sm 11.24% 7×1015 y α 1.986 144Nd
149Sm 13.82% >2×1015 y (α) 1.870 145Nd
150Sm 7.38% (α) 1.4495 146Nd
151Sm syn 90 y β 151Eu
152Sm 26.75% (α) 0.2203 148Nd
153Sm syn 46.284 h β 153Eu
154Sm 22.75% >2.3×1018 y (ββ) 1.2510 154Gd
Decay modes in parentheses are predicted, but have not yet been observed
· references
Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, the discoverer of samarium

ಸಮಾರಿಯಮ್ ಒಂದು ಮೂಲಧಾತು.ಇದು ವಿರಳಧಾತು ಲೋಹಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದು.ಇದಕ್ಕೆ ರಷ್ಯದ ತಂತ್ರಜ್ಞ ಸಮರಸ್ಕಿಯವರ ಗೌರವಾರ್ಥ ಸಮಾರಿಯಮ್ ಎಂದು ಹೆಸರಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ.ಇದನ್ನು ೧೮೭೯ರಲ್ಲಿ ಫ್ರಾನ್ಸ್ ನ ವಿಜ್ಞಾನಿ ಪೌಲ್ ಎಮಿಲೆ ಲೆಕಾಕ್ ಡೆ ಬೋಯಿಸ್ ಬೌಡ್ರೆನ್ ಕಂಡುಹಿಡಿದರು.ಇದನ್ನು ಲೇಸರ್ ಗಳಲ್ಲಿ,ಕೆಲವು ರಾಸಾಯನಿಕ ಕ್ರಿಯೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ವೇಗವರ್ಧಕವಾಗಿ ಉಪಯೋಗಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ.

ಉಲ್ಲೇಖಗಳು[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

  1. Standard Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
  2. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 

ಬಾಹ್ಯ ಸಂಪರ್ಕಗಳು[ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿ]

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